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奥斯曼帝国(4)

wwlcj1982 于2008-02-09发布 l 已有人浏览
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Expansion and apogee (1453–1566) In 1389, the Ottomans ended Serbian power at the Battle of Kosovo, whi

expansion and apogee (1453–1566)

in 1389, the ottomans ended serbian power at the battle of kosovo, which paved the way for expansion into europe. sultan selim i (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the empire's eastern and southern frontiers, defeating the young safavid ismail i ruler of persia in the battle of chaldiran, establishing ottoman rule in egypt and a naval presence in the red sea. selim's successor, suleiman the magnificent (1520-1566), increased the empire's size and power even further. after capturing belgrade, suleiman struck a major blow against the kingdom of hungary at the 1526 battle of mohacs, causing that kingdom to fall into anarchy. he then laid siege to vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city when he was forced to retreat before the onset of winter. soon, transylvania, walachia, and moldavia became tributary principalities of the ottoman empire. in the east, suleiman took baghdad from the persians in 1535, giving the ottomans control of mesopotamia and naval access to the persian gulf.

under selim and above all suleiman, the empire briefly became a highly proficient and dominant naval force, controlling the eastern mediterranean and exerting an effective offensive capability into the western sector. the ottoman admiral barbarossa ended the spanish occupation of tunis and algeria. barbarossa rescued muslims and jews from spain to the safety of ottoman lands, particularly, salonica, cyprus, and the newly conquered, and empty city of constantinople during the spanish inquisition. in 1543 the forces of the french king francis i and barbarossa combined to capture nice on behalf of francis, whose mother had requested the help of the ottoman sultan against the holy roman empire, which underlines the religious divisions in europe at the time. france was the empire's major european ally in this period, both powers united by mutual opposition to hapsburg spain and the ottomans helped out their ally - france economically, by giving them rights to do tax-free trade within the ottoman domains.

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