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Native Son [土生子]

所属栏目: General

点    击: 873

作    者:Richard Wright

小说大小:1.25 MB

推荐等级:2级

整理时间:2010-06-04

内容简介

【故事梗概】
  小说主人公别格·托马斯过着饥寒交迫的生活,他在白人眼中是“坏黑鬼”,而他对白人则怀着又恨又怕的心理,后来在无意中杀死了一个白人姑娘而被捕。当他被判死刑时,共产党员白人律师麦克斯出庭为其辩护,道出了别格犯罪的根源——社会的不公,但仍未扭转别格走向刑场的宿命。理查德·赖特是美国最享盛誉的黑人作家之一,本书也被誉为美国黑人文学的里程碑。西方评论界一般都认为从《土生子》出版后,黑人文学才在美国文学中取得地位,可以说,该书使黑人文学达到了一个高峰。本书自始自终充满着紧迫感、郁闷感,既反映了社会底层的被压迫民族的内心活动,也烘托出这种生活环境所养成的主人公的残忍性格。

Native Son (1940) is a novel by American author Richard Wright. The novel tells the story of 20-year-old Bigger Thomas, an African American living in utter poverty. Bigger lived in Chicago's South Side ghetto in the 1930s. Bigger was always getting into trouble as a youth, but upon receiving a job at the home of the Daltons, a rich, white family, he experienced a realization of his identity. He accidentally kills a white woman, runs from the police, rapes and kills his girlfriend and is then caught and tried. "I didn't want to kill", Bigger shouted. "But what I killed for, I am! It must've been pretty deep in me to make me kill."

Wright gets inside the head of "brute Negro" Bigger, revealing his feelings, thoughts and point of view as he commits crimes and is confronted with racism, violence and debasement. The novel's treatment of Bigger and his motivations conforms to the conventions of literary naturalism.

While not apologizing for Bigger's crimes, Wright is sympathetic to the systemic inevitability behind them. The novel is a powerful statement about racial inequality and social injustices so deep that it becomes nearly impossible to determine where societal expectations/conditioning end and free will begins. As Bigger's lawyer points out, there is no escape from this destiny for his client or any other black American, since they are the necessary product of the society that formed them and told them since birth who exactly they were supposed to be. "No American Negro exists," Wright once wrote "who does not have his private Bigger Thomas living in his skull." Frantz Fanon discusses this feeling in his 1952 essay L'Experience Vecue du Noir, or "The Fact of Blackness". "In the end," writes Fanon, "Bigger Thomas acts. To put an end to his tension, he acts, he responds to the world's anticipation."

【关于作者】
  理查德·赖特 美国黑人作家。1908年9月4日生于密西西比州纳齐兹附近的一个种植园里。祖父是黑人奴隶,父亲是种植园工人,母亲是乡村教师。赖特进过孤儿院,曾在亲戚家寄养,15岁起独立谋生。他从小深受歧视并从事各种体力劳动。同时他勤奋自学,立志成为作家,深受德莱塞、刘易斯、安德森等现实主义作家的影响。1932年加入美国共产党,1937年赖特去纽约任美共机关报哈莱姆区的编辑。1940年他的长篇小说《土生子》问世,使他一跃成为享誉美国文坛的黑人作家。小说获得畅销,后又改编成戏剧在百老汇上演,并拍摄成电影。西方有的评论家认为只有在《土生子》出版之后,黑人文学才在美国文学中取得地位。1944年赖特退出共产党。1946年迁居巴黎,1960年11月28日去世。赖特著有长篇小说五部、中短篇小说集两部、与人合写的剧本两个以及其他著作近十部,也发表过一些诗,但他最突出的成就是小说。

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