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Agamemnon [阿伽门农]

所属栏目: Others

点    击: 676

作    者:Aeschylus

小说大小:280 KB

推荐等级:2级

整理时间:2009-12-28

内容简介

Agamemnon is only the first play of the great tragic trilogy, the Oresteia. Aeschylus wrote the Oresteia around 458 B.C.E.. It is his sole trilogy to survive intact. The two other plays, Choephori and Eumenides, and a lost satyr play called Proteus won its author first prize at the Great Dionysa that same year. A dramatic competition whose later victors included Sophocles and Euripides, the Great Dionysa took place once a year in Athens during the festival of Dionysus. The conventions of the competition were such that dramatists were responsible for nearly every aspect of production and staging, from composition of the plays themselves to costumes and scenery. In fact, Aeschylus probably acted in the first performances of the Oresteia. Plays were judged according to both high aesthetic criteria and the approval of the general audience. In his own time Aeschylus gained a reputation for dynamic and ornate sets, as well as for stunning sound and visual effects. He is considered by historians of Greek tragedy to be a major innovator in these areas.

The Oresteia spans two generations of the house of Atreus, while recounting, in different places, the line's unfortunate history, recent and remote. In Agamemnon, the king returns from Troy to Argos, where he is murdered by his wife; in Choephori, Agamemnon's son, Orestes, avenges his father by killing his mother and her lover, Aegisthus; and finally, in Eumenides, the bloodthirsty Harpies haunt Orestes until his final absolution by Athena's divine justice.

It is impossible to understand Aeschylus' grander theological and political project in the Oresteia by reading Agamemnon alone. Agamemnon stands on its own, but it is greatly enriched by the other two plays. One must read the others to see not only the scope and grandeur of this project, but its tightness of theme and symbolism, and its brilliant resolution. However, in Agamemnon we find the kernel of what is to come in Choephori and Eumenides. After all, Cassandra prophecies the key plot events through the end of Choephori, and the Chorus' refrain, "Sing sorrow, sorrow: but good win out in the end," anticipates the just resolution of the trilogy in the final play. But the play itself ends with a barrage of questions particularly centered around human guilt and divine causality. The vicious cycle of vengeance illustrated so poignantly in Agamemnon points to the inadequacy of humans, yet throughout the play gods remain strangely silent. How can this be? Their intervention is sure to come?that is all we know.

The tyranny under which Argos finds itself at the end of Agamemnon corresponds in a very broad way some events in the biographical career of Aeschylus. During his life, Aeschylus is know to have made at least two visits to the court of the Sicilian tyrant Hieron. It was a place that lured some of the other great poets of his day, Simonides, Pindar, and Bacchylides. He was also alive to see the democratization of Athens. The tension between, tyranny and democracy, is introduced in Agamemnon and, again, is developed more in the next two plays.

阿伽门农》是埃斯库罗斯的确是《俄瑞斯忒斯三部曲》的第一部。埃斯库罗斯的《俄瑞斯忒斯三部曲》(公元前458)是现存的古希腊唯一的三部曲。第一部《阿伽门农》是古希腊最出色的悲剧之一。阿伽门农出兵特洛伊时,曾经杀死他的女儿伊菲革涅亚祭神,他的妻子克吕泰墨涅斯特拉想为女儿复仇,串通她的情人埃癸斯托斯在阿伽门农得胜回国时把他谋害了。第二部《奠酒人》写阿伽门农的儿子俄瑞斯忒斯回国为父报仇,杀死他的母亲。第三部《报仇神》写俄瑞斯忒斯在雅典法庭受审,雅典娜女神宣判他无罪。剧本结束时,雅典人欢庆城邦的保护神雅典娜的节日。这个三部曲的主题是描写父权制对母权制的胜利和进步的法治精神对血族复仇观念的胜利。

埃斯库罗斯是古希腊悲剧的真正创始者,恩格斯称他为“悲剧之父”。他使悲剧具有深刻的思想内容和完备的形式。他首先采用三部曲的悲剧形式,每部既能独立存在,各部之间又有紧密的联系。据说,布景、庄严的舞蹈、高底靴和轻飘鲜明的服装都是埃斯库罗斯首先采用的。

埃斯库罗斯的人物都是巨人式的,但一般说来,他们的性格固定不变。他的悲剧富于抒情气氛,不大注重情节的戏剧性。他的风格庄严崇高,词汇丰富,但有时显得堆砌。

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