英语单词

听力入门英语演讲VOA慢速英语美文听力教程英语新闻名校课程听力节目影视听力英语视频

音符感知可以依赖于文化

zlxxm 于2019-12-13发布 l 已有人浏览
增大字体 减小字体
世界上每种文化都创造音乐。但是,是什么塑造了我们对音乐的认知呢?两个可能的原因是人类大脑的极限和我们一生中接触音乐的时间。
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

Musical Note Perception Can Depend on Culture

音符感知可以依赖于文化

Every culture around the world creates music. But what shapes our perception of music? Two candidates are the limits of the human brain and the exposure we've already had to music during our lives.

世界上每种文化都创造音乐。但是,是什么塑造了我们对音乐的认知呢?两个可能的原因是人类大脑的极限和我们一生中接触音乐的时间。

If you only test participants with experience with Western music, then we really can't know whether these features comes from the experience or from the biological constraint.Psychologist Nori Jacoby of the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics. During the past few years, he and his colleagues have visited a remote area of Bolivia to investigate this question.

马克斯普朗克经验美学研究所的心理学家诺里·雅各比表示:“如果你只测试有西方音乐经验的参与者,那么我们真的不知道这些特征是来自经验还是来自生理限制。”在过去几年中,他和他的同事为调查这个问题前往了玻利维亚的一个偏远地区。

"And so we traveled there by taking a canoe ride or taking a Cessna plane or a couple of hours on a truck to communities that don't have running water or electricity."The Tsimane' are an indigenous people who live in the Amazon basin. "We specifically recruited participants from the Bolivian Amazon because these participants have relatively little exposure to Western music."

“因此,我们乘坐独木舟或塞斯纳飞机,或坐几个小时的卡车前往没有自来水或电力供应的社区。”提斯曼人是生活在亚马逊盆地的土著人。“我们特意从玻利维亚亚马逊招募了参与者,因为这些参与者对西方音乐的接触相对较少。”

For example, octaves are a staple of Western music, but Tsimane' musical instruments don't feature them. As an acoustical phenomenon, an octave is defined as the interval in which the vibrational frequency of the bottom note is half that of the top note. They're considered the same note, an octave apart. For example, middle C ...

例如,八度音阶是西方音乐的主要部分,但提斯曼的乐器中却没有八度音阶。作为一种声学现象,八度被定义为底部音符的振动频率是顶部音符振动频率的一半的区间。它们被认为是同一个音符,分开一个八度。例如,中C…

[CLIP: Middle C tone]

(剪辑:中央C音)

... and high C.

...还有高音C。

(CLIP: High C tone)

(剪辑:高音C)

For the study, Tsimane' participants were asked to listen to simple melodies and sing them back to the researchers. This exercise revealed that the Tsimane' don't perceive tones that are an octave apart as the same note. On the other hand, participants from the U.S. did recognize octaves - although musically trained Westerners were better at it than those with no musical training.

在这项研究中,研究人员要求提斯曼的参与者听一些简单的旋律后再将其唱出来。这个实验揭示了提斯曼人“无法感知到与同一个音符相隔八度的音调。”另一方面,来自美国的参与者确实认识八度音阶——尽管受过音乐训练的西方人比没有受过音乐训练的人更擅长八度音阶。

And so what is exciting here is that it highlights the importance of experience and exposure on the human mind.The research is in the journal Current Biology. [Nori Jacoby et al., Universal and non-universal features of musical pitch perception revealed by singing]

“令人兴奋的是,它强调了经验和接触对人类思维的重要性。”这项研究发表在《当代生物学》杂志上【诺里·雅各比等,歌唱所揭示的音乐音高感知的普遍和非普遍特征】。

In an earlier study, Jacoby's colleague Josh McDermott and his team from M.I.T. found that the Tsimane' don't find it unpleasant to hear notes like C and F# played together.

雅各比的同事乔什·麦克德莫特和他来自麻省理工学院的团队在一项较早的研究中发现,提斯曼人“听C和F#这样的音符在一起演奏并不觉得刺耳”。

[CLIP: C and F# notes]

(剪辑:C音和F音)

But they're a dissonant combo that's particularly grating to many Western ears. Despite the evidence that experience influences pitch perception, biology is also a factor. Jacoby says the new study also revealed that both Westerners and the Tsimane' have trouble distinguishing between really high notes above 4,000 hertz ...

但这两者是一种不和谐的组合,尤其让许多西方人感到刺耳。尽管有证据表明经验会影响音高感知,但生物学也是一个因素。雅各比说,新的研究还显示,西方人和提斯曼人都很难区分4000赫兹以上的真正的高音……

[CLIP: 4,000 hertz tone]

(剪辑:4000赫兹的音高)

... even though human hearing goes all the way up to 20,000 hertz.And that may be because, no matter where we're from, we hit the limits of our brains before we reach the limits of our ears.

…即使人类的听力可以达到20000赫兹。这可能是因为,无论我们来自哪里,我们在到达耳朵的极限之前就已经到达了大脑的极限。

- Susanne Bard

 

 1 2 下一页

分享到

添加到收藏

英语新闻排行