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从牙齿中得到的黑死病遗传故事

zlxxm 于2019-12-23发布 l 已有人浏览
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“牙齿上有很多血管,这些血管在某种程度上包裹着任何可能在一生中影响这个人血液的细菌或病毒。因此,通过对这些牙齿取样,我们增加了真正捕获血源性病原体DNA的机会
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Teeth Tell Black Death Genetic Tale

从牙齿中得到的黑死病遗传故事

The Black Death. Also known as the Great Plague, it spread across Europe between 1346 and 1353 and brought a swift but very painful demise to up to 60 percent of the population - perhaps 200 million people in all.

黑死病,也被称为大瘟疫,在1346年到1353年之间在欧洲蔓延,给欧洲60%的人口带来了迅速但非常痛苦的死亡——可能总共有2亿人丧生。

A bacterium called Yersinia pestis causes the plague. It's transmitted to humans by fleas. The insects hitched rides on the black rats that flourished along trade routes, aiding the spread of the plague.

这场瘟疫的起因是一种叫做鼠疫耶尔森氏菌的细菌,它通过跳蚤传染给人类。这些昆虫附在了到处乱串的老鼠身上,助长了鼠疫的传播。

The Black Death was part of a larger pandemic that occurred in Europe and in the nearby regions between the 14th and 18th centuries. And it is, by many, considered to have been the most deadly of the three pandemics of plague that have occurred throughout our history.

“黑死病是14至18世纪在欧洲和附近地区发生的更大规模流行病的一部分。很多人认为这是人类历史上三次瘟疫中最致命的一次"

Paleogeneticist Maria Spyrou of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

马克斯·普朗克人类历史科学研究所的古遗传学家Maria Spyrou如是说。

By analyzing ancient DNA from past pandemics and coupling that together with archeological and also historical evidence, we can really begin to build the history of those pandemics in great detail.

“通过分析过去大瘟疫流行的古代DNA,并结合考古和历史证据,我们可以真正开始建立非常详细的这场大瘟疫的历史。”

Spyrou and her team of disease detectives teamed up with archaeologists, looking for clues to the plague's arrival in Europe and its subsequent pattern of dispersal. Visiting old cemeteries across the continent, they sampled DNA from people who had likely succumbed to the plague - specifically, from their teeth.

Spyrou和她的疾病侦探团队与考古学家合作,寻找鼠疫到达欧洲及其随后传播模式的线索。他们走访了欧洲大陆各地的古老墓地,从可能感染了这种疾病的人身上提取了DNA样本,尤其是从他们的牙齿上。

During a person's lifetime, the teeth have many blood vessels that are going through them, and they are sort of encapsulating any bacteria or viruses that may have affected the blood of this individual during their lifetime. And therefore, what we think is that by sampling those teeth, we have increased chances of really capturing the DNA of blood-borne pathogens like Yersinia pestis.

“在一个人的一生中,牙齿上有很多血管,这些血管在某种程度上包裹着任何可能在一生中影响这个人血液的细菌或病毒。因此,我们认为通过对这些牙齿取样,我们增加了真正捕获血源性病原体(如鼠疫耶尔森菌)DNA的机会。”

The researchers then reconstructed the genomes of the plague bacteria from different sites. Based on the location of the most ancestral strain of bacteria, they think the pathogen most likely first arrived in eastern Europe before spreading rapidly across the rest of the continent. But as it dispersed, Spyrou says, it picked up just a single genetic mutation.

然后,研究人员从不同的位置重建了鼠疫细菌的基因组。根据最古老的细菌株的位置,他们认为病原体最有可能首先到达东欧,然后迅速蔓延到欧洲大陆的其他地方。但是Spyrou表示,随着病菌的扩散,它只携带了一个基因突变。

So in other words, what we think we're finding here is that the Black Death in Europe was caused by a single clone. So a single strain.

“换句话说,我们认为我们在这里发现的是欧洲的黑死病是由一个克隆引起的,也就是一个单一的菌株。”

The finding suggests that the plague was introduced to Europe just one time. Only later in the pandemic did the pathogen diversify, creating local reservoirs of infectious agents across Europe. The study appears in the journal Nature Communications. [Maria A. Spyrou et al., Phylogeography of the second plague pandemic revealed through analysis of historical Yersinia pestis genomes]

这一发现表明鼠疫只在欧洲出现过一次。只是在大流行后期,病原体才开始多样化,在欧洲各地形成了传染媒介的局部宿主。这项研究发表在《自然通讯》杂志上。[Maria A. Spyrou等人,通过分析历史上鼠疫耶尔森菌基因组揭示的第二次鼠疫大流行的系统地理学]

Spyrou says the strain of Yersinia pestis that set off the Black Death is now itself extinct. But its legacy is a sobering reminder of how a single microorganism can bring an entire continent to its knees.

Spyrou表示,引发黑死病的耶尔森氏菌现在已经灭绝。但它造成的后果却给予了我们警醒:一个微生物如何能使整个大陆屈服。

- Susanne Bard

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