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科学美国人:头骨决定听力水平

zlxxm 于2019-12-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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新泽西州威廉·帕特森大学的心理学家迈克·戈登如发现:人们的听觉方式实际上有很多变化。根据一个人头骨的共振特性,有些频率比平均频率高或低几十分贝。
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Your Skull Shapes Your Hearing

头骨决定听力

Certain concert venues, like Boston's Symphony Hall, are known to beautifully reflect the sounds of an orchestra. It turns out there's a similar process at play in your cochlea, deep inside your ear - where a tiny bony cavity houses the organ that allows you to hear."It's like its own tiny little acoustics chamber, if you will. So anything and everything you hear is going into our ear, and then going into this little bony chamber."

某些音乐会场地,如波士顿交响音乐厅,以能完美地反映管弦乐队的声音而闻名。事实证明,在你耳朵深处的耳蜗中,也有一个类似的过程,在那里有一个很小的骨腔,容纳着让你能够听到声音的器官。“它就像一个很小的声学室,如果你同意这么说的话。所以你所听到的一切都进入耳朵,然后进入这个小骨室。”

Mike Gordon, a psychologist at William Paterson University in New Jersey. But while studying this process, he also found there's actually a lot of variability in the way people hear. Some frequencies can appear tens of decibels louder or quieter than average - based on the resonant properties of a person's skull.

新泽西州威廉·帕特森大学的心理学家迈克·戈登如是说。但在研究这一过程的同时,他还发现,人们的听觉方式实际上有很多变化。根据一个人头骨的共振特性,有些频率比平均频率高或低几十分贝。

We were shocked... my first version of the draft had exclamation points all over the place, but we eventually removed those from the final copy.First, Gordon's team gave 30 volunteers a hearing test - the standard type, where different frequencies of tones are played at varying loudness. Then, they did a "bone conduction" hearing test, where vibrations are transmitted directly onto the skull, from behind the ear.

“我们很震惊……我的初稿到处都是感叹号,但我们最终从终稿中删除了这些感叹号。”首先,戈登的研究小组给30名志愿者做了一项听力测试——标准的听力测试,在不同的音量下播放不同频率的音调。然后,他们做了一个“骨传导”听力测试,振动直接从耳朵后面传到头骨上。

Finally, they projected white noise like this <> through the skull, from behind the ear. And recorded what came out at the forehead. This is that white noise <> filtered through Gordon's skull: <>

最后,他们像这样从耳朵后面将白噪声投射到头骨,并记录了前额的变化。这是白噪音通过戈登的头骨声音的样本。

With those filtered samples, they were able to see the unique spectral fingerprints each volunteer's skull left on the white noise, amplifying some frequencies and damping down others. And those ups and downs actually correlated to each volunteer's ability to perceive certain frequencies in the bone conduction hearing test. Meaning: "The skull itself, because it's such an intimate and personal thing, is going to shape your experience of the world perceptually." The findings appear in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

通过这些过滤后的样本,他们能够看到每个志愿者留在白噪声上的独特的光谱指纹,有些频率增强了,而有些则减弱了。这些起伏实际上与每个志愿者在骨传导听力测试中感知特定频率的能力有关。意思是:“头骨本身,因为它的亲密性和私密性,将在感知上塑造你对世界的体验。”研究结果发表在《美国声学学会杂志》上。

Although the research is just preliminary, Gordon says there might be some intriguing therapeutic uses of this new insight. "What if we could cheaply and easily run broadband noise through someone's skull and look at how it filtered, and then do it again later... would it show us an injury? Well, it might if the skull changed dramatically, which could indicate a head injury." And, more trivially, he says, perhaps it could explain why you really can't stand that one singer everyone loves. Just blame it on the resonant properties of your skull.

虽然这项研究只是初步的,但戈登表示这一新发现可能应用为一些有趣的治疗用途。“如果我们可以既廉价又容易地让宽带噪音通过某人的头骨并观察其过滤的过程,周而往复......”这能不能显示出我们受伤了呢?嗯,如果头骨发生了巨大的变化,这可能意味着头部受伤了。”他说道。简言之,这或许可以解释为什么你真的无法忍受一个每个人都喜欢的歌手。这只能怪你头骨的共振特性。

- Christopher Intagliata

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