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从防食人鱼上获取了防弹衣的灵感

zxlxm 于2020-01-03发布 l 已有人浏览
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亚马逊深处生活着世界上最大的淡水鱼之一:传奇的巨滑舌鱼。
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Piranha-Proof Fish Gives Inspiration for Body Armor

从防食人鱼上获取了防弹衣的灵感

Deep in the Amazon lives one of the world's largest freshwater fish: the legendary Arapaima. It tips the scales at hundreds of pounds... making it a coveted catch for extreme anglers, like Jeremy Wade from the show River Monsters. (River Monsters audio) After a dramatically scored struggle, he catches one. It takes two guys to hold it up! ("There it is, look at that for a fish! Look at that massive female Arapaima, about 150 pounds.")

亚马逊深处生活着世界上最大的淡水鱼之一:传奇的巨滑舌鱼。它重达数百磅,是极限垂钓者梦寐以求的垂钓对象,比如电视剧《河怪》中的杰里米·韦德。经过激烈的斗争,他抓住了一条巨滑舌鱼。两个人才能将它举起!(“就是它,看那条鱼!”看看那只巨大的雌性巨滑舌鱼,大约150磅重。”)

Speaking of scales, this giant fish has another superlative quality: "It has these very impressive armored scales on its body which prevent penetration by predator's teeth yet still makes the fish quite flexible and nimble in the water." Robert Ritchie, a materials scientist at UC Berkeley. The predators he's talking about are piranhas. But the mighty Arapaima has them beat with its scales - one of the "toughest flexible biological materials," according to Ritchie's team.

说到体型,这种巨型鱼还有另一个最出色的特点:“它身上有非常令人印象深刻的装甲鳞片,这些鳞片可以抵挡捕食者的撕咬,而且使其在水中非常灵活和敏捷。”加州大学伯克利分校的一位材料科学家罗伯特·里奇表示。他说的捕食者是食人鱼。但是强大的巨滑舌鱼用体型击败了它们——根据里奇团队的说法,这是“最坚韧的柔性生物材料”之一。

After subjecting the scales to stress tests and electron microscopy in the lab, they figured out the scales' secrets. For one, they have a hard, mineralized layer on the outside. "You need the hard layer at the surface to prevent the thing from penetrating. But if the whole scale was made of this hard layer, it would just shatter, like if you tried to penetrate a piece of glass."

在实验室对这些鳞片进行了压力测试和电子显微镜检查后,他们发现了鳞片的秘密。首先,鳞片表面有一层坚硬的矿化层。“表面的硬层用于防止穿透。但如果整个鳞片都是由这层硬物构成的,它就会破碎,就像你试图穿透一块玻璃一样。”

And so the scale then has a layer of softer, but tougher, collagen on the inside... more resistant to cracking in a piranha's bite. Materials scientists have already figured out this trick - to build materials with a hard layer on the outside and a tough layer on the inside - but the secret of the Arapaima scales is how exquisitely they transition from the hard to the tough.

因此,鳞片内部有一层更柔软、更坚韧的胶原蛋白......更能抵抗食人鱼的撕咬。材料科学家们已经发现了这个窍门——制造出外面有一层硬壳,里面有一层 韧性的材料——但是巨滑舌鱼鳞片的秘密在于它们如何精巧地从硬壳过渡到韧壳。

We would love to do that in synthetic materials, it's just very hard to make materials like that. Maybe 3D printing in the future can do this. Nature does this rather cleverly because it builds materials from the bottom up, from the atoms and molecules up to the macro scale.

“我们想通过合成材料达到这一点,但是很难制造出这样的材料。也许未来的3D打印可以做到这一点。大自然非常聪明地做到了这一点,因为它自下而上地建造材料,从原子和分子一直到宏观维度。”

Photos and details are in the journal Matter.

照片和细节刊登在《Matter》杂志上。

So, who cares about a fish's scales? Well, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research does... they funded the study. Because Kevlar and other body armors are incredibly heavy. And this piranha-proof fish could be the key to a lighter load.

那么,谁在乎鱼鳞呢?空军科学研究办公室在乎,他们资助了这项研究......原因是凯夫拉尔和其他防弹衣非常重,而这种不受食人鱼侵害的鱼可能是减轻负重的关键。

- Christopher Intagliata

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