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螃蟹走迷宫?螃蟹的方向感也这么强

zxlxm 于2020-01-07发布 l 已有人浏览
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跑迷宫的螃蟹并不仅仅是一种新奇的行为。试验表明:野生螃蟹可能非常善于回到一个喜爱的进食地点或藏身之处。
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Crabs Do a Maze

螃蟹走迷宫

Rats can do it. Mice can do it. Honeybees. Some people too. And now, add green crabs to the list of creatures that can navigate a maze. "They're far more sophisticated animals than we give them credit for." Ed Pope, a marine biologist at Swansea University in the U.K.

小鼠可以做到,老鼠也能做到,蜜蜂能做到。有些人也可以做到。现在,将绿色的螃蟹添加到可以在迷宫中导航的生物列表中。“它们比我们想象的要复杂得多。”英国斯旺西大学的海洋生物学家波普说。

Apart from a couple preliminary papers from the early 1900s, he says - including one by the influential psychologist and primatologist Robert Yerkes - there wasn't a lot of evidence whether crabs possessed this ability.

他说,除了20世纪初的几篇初步论文外,没有太多证据表明螃蟹是否具有这种能力——其中包括颇具影响力的心理学家和灵长类动物学家罗伯特·耶克斯的一篇论文。

So Pope and his colleagues went to the shore, and brought back a dozen green crabs. They built mazes in the lab, and put a crushed mussel at the end, as enticement. Then, they set the crabs loose and captured video of their movements. Over the next month, the crabs ran - or maybe skittered - through the maze faster and faster to get to the food.

于是,波普和他的同事们去了海边,带回了一打绿色的螃蟹。他们在实验室里建了迷宫,并在迷宫的尽头放了一个碎贻贝作为诱饵。然后,他们将螃蟹放入迷宫并拍摄它们的活动视频。在接下来的一个月里,螃蟹们在迷宫里翻找着,或者可能是飞快地跑着,找到食物的速度越来越快。

But they also started taking fewer and fewer wrong turns. By week three we had animals that were taking no wrong turns at all. And that gave us quite good evidence they were learning the maze.

“但他们也开始越来越少地走错路。到第三周的时候,我们的动物已经完全能找对方向了。这很好地证明了他们此前是在研究迷宫。”

Then the researchers thoroughly scrubbed the tank to get rid of any telltale mussel aromas. After a few weeks they put the crabs back into the maze. And even with no mussel waiting at the end of the course, experienced crabs still made it to the end more quickly than crabs who'd never walked the maze. That ability suggests that the veterans had indeed remembered the route. The details are in the journal Biology Letters. [Ross Davies et al, Maze learning and memory in a decapod crustacean]

然后研究人员彻底清洗了容器,以去除任何能残留的贻贝气味。几周后,他们把螃蟹放回了迷宫。即使迷宫出口处没有贻贝,有经验的螃蟹仍然比那些从来没有走过迷宫的螃蟹更快地到达终点。这种能力表明此前参与实验的螃蟹确实记得那条路线。详情刊登在《生物学快报》杂志上。

Maze-running crabs are not just a novelty act. The trials demonstrate that wild crabs might be highly competent at returning to a favorite feeding spot or hiding place. And as the world's oceans become more polluted and acidic, the crab finding gives Pope and other scientists a cognitive skill to test...to see how crabs and other undersea invertebrates might weather a changing tide.

跑迷宫的螃蟹并不仅仅是一种新奇的行为。这些试验表明,野生螃蟹可能非常善于回到一个喜爱的进食地点或藏身之处。随着世界海洋的污染越来越严重,酸性越来越强,波普和其他科学家从对螃蟹的研究中获得了一种认知能力,以此来测试...观察螃蟹和其他海底无脊椎动物如何应对变化的潮汐。

- Christopher Intagliata

 

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