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研究: 埃及人在5600年前就自己酿啤酒喝了

kira86 于2020-04-20发布 l 已有人浏览
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《科学报告》杂志上的一项研究发现,埃及的拉康波利斯人大约在5600年前,就自己酿啤酒喝了。
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Egyptian Vats 5,600 Years Old Were For Beer Brewing

有5600年历史的埃及大桶是用来酿造啤酒的

Some 5,600 years ago, people in the Egyptian city of Hierakonpolis did something that's still a very popular activity today: they brewed and drank beer. We know this, because archaeologists examining the area near the ruins of a cemetery for the elite discovered a structure containing five ceramic vats that would have been heated from below. Residues in the vats confirmed that they had once made beer.

大约5600年前,在埃及的希拉康波利斯人做了一件至今仍很流行的事:他们自己酿啤酒喝。我们之所以知道这一点,是因为考古学家在考察精英墓园遗址附近时,发现了一个里面有5个陶瓷缸、可能从下面加热过的结构。陶缸里的残留物证实他们曾经酿造过啤酒。

And it's estimated that if these five vats were operating at the same time, 325 liters would have been produced, which is equal to 650 cans of Budweiser.Texas Tech University microbiologist Moamen Elmassry. He says this ancient beer would have tasted very different from what our modern palates are used to. The Egyptian beer makers did use malted wheat and barley in the brewing process. But no one had mastered carbonation yet. So the resulting brew was a flat, unfiltered malt beverage with a low alcohol content.

“据估计,如果这五个大桶同时运行,就可以生产325升啤酒,相当于650罐百威啤酒。德克萨斯理工大学微生物学家莫阿门·埃尔马塞里(Moamen Elmassry)表示到。他说,这种古老的啤酒尝起来和我们现代人的口味很不一样。埃及啤酒制造商在酿造过程中确实使用了小麦和大麦麦芽。但是还没有人掌握碳酸化工艺。因此,酿造出来的是一种没有过滤的麦芽饮料,酒精含量很低。

Elmassry's colleagues recently sampled thick dark deposits from the Hierakonpolis vats. The chemical analysis confirmed that they were indeed the product of beer making and not some other fermented food. The tests also revealed other ingredients ancient Egyptians put in their beer. The researchers found a high concentration of the amino acid proline, which is abundant in dates and some other fruits.

埃尔马塞里的同事们最近从希拉康波利斯大桶中取样了厚厚的黑色沉积物。化学分析证实,它们确实是啤酒制造的产物,而不是其他发酵食品。分析还发现古埃及人在啤酒中加入了的其他成分。研究人员发现了高浓度的氨基酸脯氨酸——枣和其他一些水果都含有丰富的氨基酸脯氨酸。

This result suggests that dates could have been used or incorporated in the beer, for flavor.And maybe to add some sweet notes. Hops -- which act as both a flavoring and a preservative -- weren't added to beer until medieval times."The use of hops was unknown to the ancient Egyptians, and we think that they used phosphoric acid to preserve their beer."

这一结果表明,可能在发酵啤酒时用了枣,也可能是加在啤酒里调味。也许还可以加上一些甜味剂。啤酒花作为调味料和防腐剂,直到中世纪才被添加到啤酒中。“古埃及人不知道啤酒花的用途,我们猜他们是用磷酸来保存啤酒。”

The residues were indeed high in phosphoric acid, a product of barley grains added during the fermentation process. Phosphoric acid is often used today to prolong the shelf life of alcoholic beverages.

这些残留物中确实含有大量的磷酸,磷酸是在发酵过程中添加的大麦颗粒的产物。如今磷酸常被用来延长酒精饮料的保质期。

Phosphoric acid via barley would have made it possible to mass produce beer, store it for extended periods, and even transport it -- all consistent with the important role beer played in ancient Egyptian society. It not only provided hydration and nutrition, but was also part of religious rituals among the elite.The study is in the journal Scientific Reports.

通过大麦产生的磷酸可以大量生产啤酒,还能让啤酒储存很长时间,甚至使得啤酒可以被运到远方——所有这些都与啤酒在古埃及社会中所扮演的重要角色是一致的。啤酒不仅提供水分和营养,而且是精英阶层宗教仪式的一部分。这项研究发表在《科学报告》杂志上。

Studying ancient beer has allowed Elmassry to reflect on the intersection of science and history.

研究古代啤酒使埃尔马塞里得以反思科学与历史的交集。

I teach a microbiology lab and we brew beer in the lab and the students see the whole fermentation process. And thinking about how ancient Egyptians were able to do a similar thing thousands of years ago, it's kind of very special feeling.

“我在一个微生物学实验室任教,我们在实验室酿造啤酒,学生们看到整个发酵过程。想想几千年前古埃及人是如何做到类似的事情的,这是一种非常特别的感觉。”

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