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BBC英语新闻:研究表明双语者具有认知优势(双语)

Lily85 于2013-01-17发布 l 已有人浏览
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先前的研究已经表明双语似乎倾向于加强心智技能的发展。
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Previous studies have shown bilingualism seems to favor the development of heightened mental skills.
先前的研究已经表明双语似乎倾向于加强心智技能的发展。

The new research, published in Neuroscience, provides evidence of that cognitive advantage among older, bilingual adults.
而发表于神经科学的这项新的研究为在年龄较大讲双语成年人这一范围的认知优势提供了证据。

Subjects were divided into three groups: bilingual seniors, monolingual seniors and younger adults and instructed to sort colors and shapes in a series of simple cognitive exercises.
受试者被分成讲双语的老年人,只讲一种语言的老年人及年轻人三组,他们按照指示在一系列简单的认知练习中对颜色和形状排序。

The researchers used a brain imaging technique to compare how well the subjects switched between mental tasks.
研究人员利用大脑成像技术对比研究受试者在精神任务之间如何良好的进行切换。

Brian Gold, a neuroscientist at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and lead author of the study, found the results showed different patterns of brain activity in the frontal part of the brain associated with the tasks.
肯塔基大学医学院神经学家兼这项研究的主要作者布莱恩·金发现结果显示接受相关任务时大脑额叶部分不同的大脑活动模式。

“We found that seniors who are bilingual are able to activate their brain with a magnitude closer to young subjects," Gold says.
“我们发现,讲双语的老年人能够激活大脑的程度接近年轻的受试者,”金说道。

"So they do not need to expend as much effort, and yet they still out-perform their monolingual peers, suggesting that they use their brain more efficiently.”
“所以他们不需要花费很多功夫,而且相比讲一种语言的同龄人来说他们仍然更胜一筹,这表明他们更有效率的使用大脑。”

Knowing a second language made no difference for the young adults in the study, who outperformed both older groups.
既已知晓在这项研究中第二语言对于优于年长团体的年轻人而言没有差别。

Gold says the older bilinguals appear to have built up a kind of cognitive reserve from their lifetime of enhanced mental activity.
金表示年长的双语者似乎已经从一生中逐渐累积增强的心理活动中建立了一种认知储备。

Gold's research appears to confirm a previous study on bilingualism among Alzheimer's patients.
金的研究似乎证实了之前的一项对于患有阿尔兹海默症的双语患者的研究。

That study showed bilinguals developed more atrophy from the brain-wasting disease, but that they were able to function at the same cognitive level as patients with less atrophy.
研究显示双语者在脑损耗疾病中发展更多的萎缩,但是他们能够像较少萎缩的患者那样在同一认知水平运转。

"That suggested that their bilingualism is helping them to compensate for that more advanced brain atrophy," Gold says.
“这表明他们的双语能力帮助他们为更多发展出的脑萎缩进行弥补,”金说道。

"The finding that we had is consistent with that because it basically says that bilinguals as seniors are able to do more with less.”
“我们的发现是一致的,因为它基本上表明老年人双语者能够事半功倍。”

Gold says the study confirms bilingualism can play a functional, protective role in the brain.
金表示这项研究证实了双语可以在大脑中发挥功能性且起到保护作用。

Gold says his next step is to explore whether learning a second language or immigrating to another country as an adult can provide some of the same mental advantages as lifelong bilingualism.
金称他的下一个步是探究学习第二语言或移民到另一个国家作为终身双语能力的成年人是否可以提供一些相同的心理优势。

词语解释

1.bilingualism n.习用两种语言;能用两种语言

We are trying to adopt bilingualism.
我们正努力推行使用双语。

2.instruct v.命令;指导

His uncle instructed him in French.
他的叔叔教他法语。

3.associate v.联想;联合

I always associate her with roses.
我总是把她与玫瑰花联想在一起。

4.reserve n.候补;预备品

We reserve the right to lodge a claim for loss.
我们保留要求赔偿损失的权利。

5.enhance v.提高;增加

He made many efforts to enhance his reputation.
他做了许多努力来提高他的声誉。

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