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每日英语听力:比利·简·金,第一位为同性恋者争取性权利的网球斗士

wjrxm 于2021-04-21发布
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Article #90 Billie Jean King

比利·简·金

During her competitive days, Billie Jean King was one of the most successful players in women's tennis. However, King is probably more recognized for her political support of women's tennis, and her fight to achieve respect for lesbian and gay athletes in tennis, and in sport in general.

在她的竞技生涯中,比利·简·金是女子网球最成功的运动员之一。然而,金更被认可的原因可能是她在政治上对女子网球的支持,以及她为赢得网球和其他体育运动中男女同性恋运动员的尊重而做出的努力。

Born in Long Beach, California in 1943 as Billie Jean Moffatt, she began playing tennis at the age of 11. King learned the game playing on municipal courts, rather than the route most successful players take in tennis in the private clubs. When King began competing in the elite levels of tennis, the sport was strictly amateur. She first entered Wimbledon in 1961, and only two years later she advanced to the final. She won her first Wimbledon title in 1966, at the young age of 22. Her first place prize for winning was a $60 gift voucher for Harrods department store. By the end of her remarkable career, King would amass a remarkable 39 Grand Slam titles.

她于1943年出生在加州的长滩,原名比利·简·莫法特,11岁开始打网球。金是在市政球场学的网球,而不是像大多数成功的网球运动员那样在私人俱乐部里学的。当金开始参加网球精英级别的比赛时,这项运动完全是业余的。1961年,她第一次进入温布尔登,仅仅两年后,她就进入了决赛。1966年,年仅22岁的她赢得了她的第一个温网冠军。她赢得的第一名是哈罗德百货公司价值60美元的礼券。在她非凡的职业生涯结束时,金已经获得了39个大满贯头衔。

Although women's tennis was amateur, King and a few other players began arguing for professional status. Indeed, King's competitive performances and training regimen took on a very professional tone. In fact, it was King, and not men's player John McEnroe, who started the practice of arguing against umpires' decisions on the court, although it is the latter player who is better known for such antics. King's training and competitive practices made her a truly modern and "professional" player, but they also cost her much public support.

尽管女子网球是业余的,金和其他一些选手开始为职业地位而争论。的确,金的竞技表现和训练方案非常专业。事实上,是金而不是男子选手约翰·麦肯罗,开始在球场上反对裁判的裁决,尽管后者更以这种滑稽的行为而闻名。金的训练和竞技训练使她成为一名真正的现代“职业”选手,但这也让她失去了很多公众支持。

King's major initiative was to start a professional tour, which began in 1968. Operating outside the auspices of the "official" tournaments and organizations, the new professional tour had trouble attracting many of the top international players.

金的主要倡议是从1968年开始职业巡回赛。新的职业巡回赛不受“官方”锦标赛和组织的赞助,在吸引许多顶级国际选手方面遇到了困难。

Interestingly, Wimbledon allowed professionals soon after King's tour started. The rest of the world's tours permitted professionals soon after.

有趣的是,温网在金的巡回赛开始后不久就允许职业选手参赛。不久之后,世界上其他地方的巡回赛也允许职业选手前来。

Among King's other major political initiatives, she aligned herself with the pro-abortion movement, Title IX legislation in the U.S. (the purpose of which was to equalize girls' and women's funding in education), and she negotiated a deal with the Philip Morris Tobacco Company to set up the Virginia Slims tour. Finally, the famous match between herself and self-styled "male chauvinist pig" Bobby Riggs in 1973, which King won, brought much public attention to King and to the growing women's athletic movement.

在金的其他主要政治举措中,她与支持堕胎的运动、美国的教育法第九条(Title IX)结盟(其目的是平等地分配女孩和妇女在教育方面的资金),她还与菲利普莫里斯烟草公司(Philip Morris Tobacco Company)谈判,建立了弗吉尼亚斯利姆斯巡演(Virginia Slims tour)。最后,1973年,金与自称“大男子主义猪”的鲍比·里格斯(Bobby Riggs)进行了著名的比赛并且赢得了比赛。这场比赛引起了公众对金的广泛关注,也引起了不断发展的女子体育运动的关注。

Finally, in 1981, it was revealed that King had a lesbian relationship with her secretary. At first King denied the allegation, but later she admitted to the relationship. Instead of hiding her sexuality, which is what female lesbian athletes had been doing for years, King was the first major sports superstar to come out. As such, King will be justifiably recognized as one of the first and most important fighters for the sexual rights of gays and lesbians in sport.

最终,在1981年,有消息称金和她的秘书发展了女同性恋关系。起初,金否认了这一指控,但最后还是承认了。女同性恋运动员多年来一直隐瞒自己的性取向,金没有这样做,而是成为了第一个出柜的体育巨星。因此,金将被公认为是第一位也是最重要的为同性恋者在体育运动中争取性权利的斗士。

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