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BBC六分钟英语:为什么母语叫“mother tongue”?

kira86 于2020-09-09发布
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本期BBC六分钟英语听力的话题是——母语。为什么母语叫“mother tongue”?
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Why's it called 'mother tongue'?

为什么母语叫“mother gongue”?

Sam: Hello. This is 6 Minute English, I'm Sam.

哈喽,这里是6分钟英语,我是山姆。

Georgina: And I'm Georgina.

我是乔治娜。

Sam: Georgina, what languages do you speak?

乔治娜,你说什么语言?

Georgina: Well, my mother tongue is English and I also speak Spanish and French badly!

嗯,我的母语是英语,我也会说西班牙语和法语,但说得不好!

Sam: OK. It's interesting that we say 'mother tongue', isn't it? Like many languages, English has a number of gender-specific terms that don't refer to gender-specific ideas and concepts. And this complicated relationship between language and gender is what we will be talking about today. But first, this week's quiz question, which is also on the topic of languages. Which of these languages is the newest? Is it: A: Esperanto B: Afrikaans C: Light Warlpiri. What do you think, Georgina?

好的。我们说“母语”时很有趣,不是吗?像许多语言一样,英语中有许多性别专用的术语,它们指的不是性别专用的思想和概念。语言和性别之间的复杂关系就是我们今天要讲的。首先是本周的测试问题,也是关于语言的话题。哪一种语言是最新的?A:世界语B:南非荷兰语C:古诺尔斯文。你觉得呢,乔治娜?

Georgina: Well, I've only heard of two of these - Esperanto and Afrikaans - so I think I'm going to choose the other one, Light Warlpiri, purely as I've never heard of it, so I think that must be the one.

嗯,我只听说过这其中的两种——世界语和南非荷兰语——所以我想我会选择第三种古诺尔斯文,纯粹是因为我从来没有听说过,所以我想答案一定是其中之一。

Sam: OK, well we'll find out if your intuition is correct later in the programme. Professor Lera Boroditsky is a cognitive scientist who was a guest on the BBC World Service programme, The Conversation. She was asked about why we use the term 'mother tongue' in English.

好吧,我们稍后再看你的直觉是否正确。认知科学家莱拉·博格迪特斯基教授是BBC世界服务节目《对话》的嘉宾。有人问她为什么在英语中使用“母语”这个词。

Professor Lera Boroditsky: Different languages actually do it differently, but definitely there's a strong association between mothers as primary caregivers and people who teach us things, and so there's that point of origin metaphor that applies in a lot of languages.

不同的语言表现形式也不同,但是在母亲作为主要照顾者和教导我们的人之间肯定有很强的联系,所以这种起源点比喻在很多语言中都适用。

Sam: So, how does she explain the use of mother tongue, Georgina?

那么,乔治娜,她是如何解释母语这种表达的使用的呢?

Georgina: Well, she says it's a form of metaphor. A metaphor is a way of describing something by comparing it to something else. In a metaphor,though, you don't say that something is like something else, you say that it 'is' something else. For example, having good friends is the key to a happy life.

嗯,她说这是一种隐喻手法。隐喻是一种通过将某事物与另一事物进行比较来描述某事物本身的方式。在隐喻中,不会说某物像另一物,而是说它“是”另一物。例如,有好朋友是幸福生活的关键。

Sam: It is indeed. In this metaphor, language is seen as coming from your primary caregiver, the person who looked after you most when you were young, and traditionally this was mothers.

确实是。在这个比喻中,把语言比作你的主要照顾者,即在你小时候照顾你最多的人,传统意义上指的是母亲。

Georgina: So, this is perhaps the point of origin, the starting place,of the metaphorical phrase, mother tongue. Let's listen again.

所以,这可能就是隐喻性短语mother tongue的起源。我们再来听一遍。

Professor Lera Boroditsky: Different languages actually do it differently, but definitely there's a strong association between mothers as primary caregivers and people who teach us things, and so there's that point of origin metaphor that applies in a lot of languages.

不同的语言表现形式也不同,但是在母亲作为主要照顾者和教导我们的人之间肯定有很强的联系,所以这种起源点比喻在很多语言中都适用。

Sam: Language is very powerful in society and culture, and when it comes to gendered language, it can cause some issues. Here's Lera Boroditsky again:

语言在社会和文化中是非常强大的,当涉及到性别语言时,它会引起一些问题。下面还是莱拉·博格迪特斯基的发言:

Professor Lera Boroditsky: ... in English of course we have some words that are gendered, like 'actor' and 'actress' or 'waiter' and 'waitress', and very commonly when there are those two gender forms people perceive the masculine form as being a more prestigious job or the more skilled job than the feminine form, so an actor is a fancier job than an actress and a waiter is a fancier job than a waitress, and so they could then come with pay disparities and so on.

...当然,在英语中也有一些按照性别分类的词,比如actor(男演员)和actress(女演员),或者waiter(服务员)和waitress(女服务员)。这两个词同时出现时,人们通常会认为表示男性职业的词比表示女性职业的词要更具威望和熟练性,即男演员比女演员优越,而男服务员比女服务员优越,随之而来的就是工资差异等。

Sam: So, what's the subconscious difference in attitude towards, for example, an actor and actress?

那么,比如说,对于一个男演员和女演员,潜意识里的态度有什么不同呢?

Georgina: Well, she says that people perceive those roles differently. This means that we are aware of, or believe there is a difference in the jobs because of the vocabulary. The male form is perceived to be more prestigious - more important, more respected, even though it's exactly the same job.

她表示人们对这些角色的理解是不同的。这意味着我们意识到或者相信,由于词汇的不同而在工作中存在差异。男性被认为更有声望——更重要,更受尊重,即使是做同样的工作。

Sam: And this attitude can lead to problems such as disparities in pay. A disparity is a difference, an inequality, and in the world of work it can mean men getting paid more than women for the same job. Here's Professor Boroditsky again.

而这种态度会导致诸如工资差异等问题。disparity指的是差异,不平等,这在工作中意味着相同职位前提下男员工获得的报酬比女员工高。再听一遍博士的话。

Professor Lera Boroditsky: ...in English of course we have some words that are gendered, like 'actor' and 'actress' or 'waiter' and 'waitress', and very commonly when there are those two gender forms people perceive the masculine form as being a more prestigious job or a more skilled job than the feminine form, so an actor is a fancier job than an actress and a waiter is a fancier job than a waitress, and so they could then come with pay disparities and so on.

...当然,在英语中也有一些按照性别分类的词,比如actor(男演员)和actress(女演员),或者waiter(服务员)和waitress(女服务员)。这两个词同时出现时,人们通常会认为表示男性职业的词比表示女性职业的词要更具威望和熟练性,即男演员比女演员优越,而男服务员比女服务员优越,随之而来的就是工资差异等。

Sam: OK, before we take another look at today's vocabulary, let's reveal the answer to this week's quiz. Which of these languages is the newest, Is it: A: Esperanto B: Afrikaans C: Light Warlpiri

好的,我们复习今天的词汇之前,先揭晓本周测试题的答案。哪种语言是最新的:A:世界语B:南非荷兰语C:古诺尔斯文

Georgina, what did you say?

乔治娜,你选的是哪个?

Georgina: I thought it had to be Light Walpiri, but just because I had never heard of it before.

我觉得是古诺尔斯文,但这只是因为我之前没听说过而已。

Sam: Well, congratulations. Your instincts were good, that is correct. Let's move on to vocabulary and look at today's words and phrase again.

好吧,祝贺你。你的直觉很准,答对了。我们继续来复习今天学过的单词会短语吧。

Georgina: A primary caregiver is a person who has most responsibility for looking after someone.

primary caregiver指的是对照顾别人负有最大责任的人。

Sam: A point of origin is the place or time when something begins.

point of origin指的是某物的起源地或起源时间。

Georgina: A metaphor is a way of describing something. We can say that something is something else that has similar qualities.

隐喻是描述事物的一种方式。我们可以说某物是具有相似品质的另一物。

Sam: You're a star!

你是一个明星!

Georgina: Aw, thank you.

噢,谢谢你。

Sam: No, I meant, you're a star, is an example of a metaphor.

不,我的意思是你是一颗星星,这是一种比喻。

Georgina: Oh, OK. Of course, I knew that.

哦,好吧。当然,我知道你说的是什么。

Sam: Mmmm, if you say so. To perceive is to think of something in a particular way. We might perceive the value of different jobs based on the vocabulary used to describe them.

嗯,你爱怎么说就怎么说吧。感知就是以特定的方式思考某件事。我们可能会根据描述不同工作的词汇来感知不同工作的价值。

Georgina: Something prestigious is important and respected.

有声望的(prestigious)东西是重要的,受人尊敬的。

Sam: And finally, a disparity is a difference, an inequality and is often used when talking about how men and women aren't always paid the same for the same job. And that is all from us. We look forward to your company again soon. In the meantime, you can always find us online, on social media and on the BBC Learning English app. Bye for now.

最后,disparity指的是一种差异,一种不平等,通常用于表示同工不同酬的男性和女性职员。今天的节目就到这里,期待下期节目再见。同时,你也可以在网站,社交媒体或者BBC英语学习软件上找到我们。再见啦!

Georgina: Bye!

再见!

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