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常春藤赖世雄解析英语杂志(84):Stonehenge Decoded 千古疑云巨

hetao 于2013-03-20发布 l 已有人浏览
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常春藤解析英语杂志由英语名师赖世雄教授编著,收集了很多不同的主题,进行英语听力强化训练。赖教授用解析的方式,把自己亲身学习英语的经验与读者分享,假设读者群也是
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

常春藤解析英语杂志由英语名师赖世雄教授编著,收集了很多不同的主题,进行英语听力强化训练。赖教授用解析的方式,把自己亲身学习英语的经验与读者分享,假设读者群也是和赖教授过去英文很差时一样,以深入浅出的方式,尤其注重字的用法,详尽的为读者解说。

Stonehenge Decoded 千古疑云巨石阵

by Matthew Brown

Stonehenge has been shrouded in mystery for more than 4,500 years. Now a British archaeologist may have found out some of its secrets.

4,500 多年以来,巨石群一直笼罩着一股神秘色彩。如今英国考古学家或许已发现其神秘之处。

There are some things that people call "mysteries" that are not really all that mysterious. Stonehenge, however, certainly deserves that description. Rumors of ancient magicians, strange druids, and the sun god Apollo surround it.

些被称之为『神秘』的事物,其实不尽然全都那么神秘。然而巨石阵却当之无愧。关于它的传说充斥着巫师、奇怪的德鲁伊特教僧侣和太阳神阿波罗。

Located in the English countryside, Stonehenge is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is instantly recognizable. It consists of a group of gigantic stones that stand upright on the ground in a circle. In some cases, pairs of the stones have another stone lying across them like a tabletop. At the sight of these strange stones, most people think two things first. One, how did people in prehistoric times manage to set up these enormous stones? And two, what was the purpose of this strange structure?

巨石阵位于英国乡间,是世界上最古老的历史遗迹之一,其辨识度相当高。它是由一群高耸竖立的巨大石头所组成的一个巨石圈。有时成对的石头之间,上方会横放着另一块石头,看起来像桌面一样。一看到这些摆放怪异的石头,大多数人都会先想到两件事。第一,史前时代的人类是如何竖立起这些巨石?第二,这些奇怪的石头排列用途何在?

No one really knows. But Stonehenge Decoded, a new program on National Geographic Channel, takes a look at a groundbreaking theory on the origins of Stonehenge. British archaeologist Mike Parker Pearson leads a team that investigates Stonehenge, and comes up with some surprises.

没有人知道真正的答案是什么。但国家地理频道的新节目《千古疑云巨石阵》将带您一探巨石阵源起的创新理论。英国考古学家麦克‧帕克‧皮尔森率领一组团队研究巨石阵,并提出令人讶异的结论。

Pearson and his crew find evidence of a 4,500-year-old settlement a few kilometers from Stonehenge. At the center of this settlement lie the remains of a second circle! After testing, it is found that the second circle was a near replica of the Stonehenge monument, but made of wood. Both circles stood at the same time.

皮尔森和组员发现距离巨石阵几公里外,有一处具有 4,500 年历史的人类聚落。而聚落的中央竟然有第二个圈形的遗迹!经过化验之后,这处圆圈几乎是巨石阵的翻版,但却是木制的。而且两处的圆圈是同时存在的。

So how were these circles connected? What was the meaning of having one in stone and one in wood? Pearson believes that Stonehenge was built for the ancestors of the people that created it. It may, he claims, have been a monument to house the spirits of the dead. The wooden monument may have represented the living, while the stone monument represented the dead. Another amazing discovery is that on the longest and shortest days of the year, the two monuments line up with the setting and rising sun. The effect is very dramatic.

这两处圆圈有什么关联呢?一处圆圈由巨石组成,而另一处由木头组成的意义何在?皮尔森相信巨石阵是人们为了纪念祖先而建造的。皮尔森声称巨石阵可能是供奉往生者灵魂之处。巨木阵或许代表生者,而巨石阵则象征亡灵。另一项惊人的发现是,这两处遗迹在夏至与冬至时,会与太阳日出和日落的位置成一直线。这样的景象相当壮观。

Tune in to Stonehenge Decoded on September 6 at 9:00 PM!

9 月 6日 晚上 9 点敬请准时收看《千古疑云巨石阵》。

练习与答案:

1. Stonehenge is _____.

(A) a series of circles

(B) a huge stone

(C) a set of stones

(D) a wooden monument

1. 巨石阵是 _____。

(A) 一连串的圆圈 (B) 一颗巨石

(C) 一组石头 (D) 一个木制的纪念碑

题解: 根据本文第二段,巨石阵是一群高耸竖立的巨大石头所组成的一个巨石圈,与 (C) 最为接近,故为正选。

2. Based on the article, what can be said of Pearson's theory?

(A) He will come up with a theory soon.

(B) There is very little evidence to support it.

(C) It proves that our beliefs were accurate.

(D) It changes the way Stonehenge has been understood.

2. 根据本文,我们可以如何描述皮尔森的理论?

(A) 他将在近期内提出一项理论。

(B) 支持这项理论的证据少之又少。

(C) 他的理论证明我们的看法正确。

(D) 他的理论改变人们对巨石阵的了解。

题解: 根据本文第三段,《千古疑云巨石阵》带领观众一探巨石阵源起的创新理论。在节目中,英国考古学家皮尔森率领一组团队研究巨石阵,提出了令人讶异的结论,可知皮尔森的理论不同以往大家对巨石阵的看法,故 (D) 为正选。

3. What has Pearson's team found?

(A) A wooden circle right beneath Stonehenge.

(B) A huge underwater city near Stonehenge.

(C) The remains of a community and a monument similar to Stonehenge.

(D) A prehistoric graveyard.

3. 皮尔森的团队发现了什么?

(A) 巨石阵正下方的木制圆圈。

(B) 巨石阵附近一座巨大的水底城市。

(C) 一个小区的遗址和一处类似巨石阵的遗迹。

(D) 一座史前的墓地。

题解: 根据本文第四段,皮尔森和组员发现距离巨石阵几公里外,有一处具有 4,500 年历史的聚落,其中央存在着第二个圆圈的遗迹。经过化验后,这个木制的圆圈几乎是巨石阵的翻版,故应选 (C)。

4. According to the article, what might Stonehenge have been used for?

(A) Religious rituals.

(B) Shelter from the cold and rain.

(C) A prison or school.

(D) A display of power.

4. 根据本文,巨石阵可能被用来作为何种用途?

(A) 宗教仪式。 (B) 避寒及避雨之处。

(C) 一座监狱或学校。 (D) 权力的展现。

题解: 根据本文第五段,巨石阵是人们为了祖先亡灵而建造的,故应选 (A)。文章中并未提及与 (B)、(C) 和 (D) 有关的叙述,故均不可选

标准答案: 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (C) 4. (A) 

文法一点灵

At the center of this settlement lie the remains of a second circle!

本句原为:

The remains of a second circle lie at the center of this settlement!

注意:

a. 地方副词(如 there, here)或地方副词词组(如 in the room)置于句首时,可形成倒装句,此类倒装句全按动词的性质作变化,句型有三种:

1) 主词 + 不及物动词 + 地方副词(词组)

→ 地方副词(词组)+ 不及物动词 + 主词

例: By the tree sat a little boy.

(那棵树旁坐着一个小男孩。)

2) 主词 + be 动词 + 过去分词 + 地方副词(词组)

→ 地方副词(词组)+ be 动词 + 过去分词 + 主词

例: On the wall was hung a painting.

(墙上挂着一幅画。)

3) 主词 + be 动词 + 现在分词 + 地方副词(词组)

→ 现在分词 + 地方副词(词组)+ be 动词 + 主词

例: Standing there is one of my friends.

(站在那里的是我的一个朋友。)

b. 此类倒装句中的主词一定是普通名词(如 a book),或专有名词(如 Mary)。若主词为代名词(如 it、she、they 等)则不可采倒装句。

单字小铺

1. Stonehenge n. 巨石阵(英格兰南部 Wiltshire 的史前巨石柱群)

2. decode vt. 解(码);解读

3. druid n. 德鲁伊特教僧侣

4. monument n. 历史遗迹;纪念碑

5. recognizable a. 可辨认的

6. gigantic a. 巨大的

7. upright adv. 笔直地 & a. 笔直的

8. tabletop n. 桌面

9. prehistoric a. 史前的

10. archaeologist n. 考古学家

11. crew n. 一队工作人员(集合名词,不可数)

12. settlement n. 小村落,聚居地

13. replica n. 复制品

14. ancestor n. 祖宗,祖先

15. the dead 死者(= dead people)

16. the living 活人(= living people)

17. dramatic a. 激动人心的;戏剧性的

18. accurate a. 准确的,精确的

19. community n. 小区

20. graveyard n. 墓地

21. ritual n. 仪式

22. shelter n. 躲避处;庇护所

精解字词词组

1. in some cases 在有些情况下,有时

2. take a look at... 看一看……

3. come up with... 提出∕想出……

4. tune in to... 转到……频道;收看∕收听……

5. a series of... 一连串……;一系列……

6. a set of... 一套……;一组……

7. be similar to... 和……相似

1. description n. 描述,形容

beyond description 难以形容,无法言喻

例: The beauty of this place is beyond description.

(这地方的美非笔墨所能形容。)

2. be located in + 大地方∕at + 小地方 位于∕座落在……

= be situated in + 大地方∕at + 小地方

例: The business district is located in the center of the city.

(该商业区位于市中心。)

例: The factory is located at the foot of the hill.

(这座工厂位于山脚下。)

3. consist of... 由……组成;包含……

= be composed of...

= be made up of...

例: The organization is composed of people from all walks of life.

(这个组织是由来自各行各业的人士所组成。)

4. at the sight of... 一看见……

例: The hikers ran away at the sight of the black bear.

(那群健行者一看到黑熊拔腿就跑。)

5. manage to V 设法(做到)……

例: How do you manage to keep your room so clean?

(你把房间保持得这么干净,是如何做到的?)

6. set up... 建造∕设立……

例: The police set up roadblocks at the intersection.

(警方在那十字路口设置路障。)

7. groundbreaking a. 开创性的

例: This is a groundbreaking idea. It will change the world.

(这是个开创性的想法,它将改变这个世界)

8. investigate vt. 调查;研究

= look into...

例: The detective traveled abroad to investigate the violent murder.

(这名探员出国调查那起凶杀案。)

9. be made of... 由……制成(产品仍保有材料原来的性质或形状)

be made from... 由……制成(产品不保留材料原来的性质或形状)

例: George Washington's false teeth were made of wood.

(乔治‧华盛顿的假牙是木制的。)

例: Grandmother's homemade wine was made from plums.

(祖母自制的酒是用梅子酿的。)

10. house vt. 让……居住;收藏,存放

例: The museum houses about two hundred paintings.

(这间博物馆收藏了约 2 百幅画。)

11. represent vt. 象征,代表

例: The color green represents many different things.

(绿色象征很多不同的涵意。)

12. line up 排成一行;排队

例: "Please line up and be quiet," said the teacher.

(老师说:『请排好队并保持安静。』)



 

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