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BBC随身英语听力: 英国人离开大城市背后的原因

kira86 于2020-03-19发布 l 已有人浏览
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伦敦市内的总人口每年呈递减的趋势。这是为什么?哪些人正在离开城市,而哪些人仍然被它的机会和活力所吸引?本集节目讨论英国人离开大城市背后的原因。
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Is the UK abandoning its cities?

英国人 “逃离” 大城市的原因

We owe a lot to cities. These densely populated hubs of transit, industry and commerce brought together great swathes of the population. More than just living together for safety, cities allowed people to cooperate more easily and, as a result, develop more complex societies, science, and culture - things we continue to benefit from today. In 2016 the UN revealed that over 50% of the world's population live in urban settlements. Of these cities, 31 are classified as megacities. A megacity is one where its inhabitants number more than 10 million. And globally this trend is expected to increase.

我们欠城市很多。这些人口密集的交通、工业和商业中心聚集了大量的人口。城市不仅仅为人们提供了安全的生活场所,人们还能更容易地合作,从而发展出更复杂的社会、科学和文化——我们今天仍从中受益。2016年,联合国公布,全球有超过50%的人口居住在城市。在这些城市中,有31个被列为特大城市,即指人口超过一千万的城市。而在全球范围内,这一趋势预计还会增加。

London is no exception. Unsurprisingly, as England's capital city, London has a population of over 10 million - up by 1.1 million since 2008, according to one BBC article. This is a result of a higher birth rate than mortality rate, and an increase in international immigration. However, despite these rises, half a million more people have migrated away from this metropolis than have flocked to it. Why might this be?

伦敦也不例外。不出所料,作为英国的首都,伦敦拥有超过1000万的人口——根据BBC的一篇文章,自2008年以来人口增加了110万。这是出生率高于死亡率以及海外移民人数增加的结果。然而,尽管有这些增长,离开这个大都市的人比涌向它的人多50万人。为什么会这样呢?

It's the result of age. Where members of all other age groups tend to depart more than they arrive, young people between the ages of 20 and 30 are drawn to the range and number of jobs that the city offers and the education opportunities that can be found there. This explains why London has one of the youngest average populations in the UK, just 37, according to the BBC.

这是因为年龄的变化导致的。在其他所有年龄段的人都倾向于离开的时候,20至30岁的年轻人纷纷涌进这座城市,因为它能提供的大量的工作岗位以及优质的教育机会。据英国广播公司(BBC)报道,这就解释了为什么伦敦是英国城市居民平均年龄最小的城市之一,只有37岁。

And the rest of the country? From 2002 to 2015 municipalities such as Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester saw a population growth of 181%, 163% and 149% respectively, according to figures from the Office for National Statistics. Young professionals looking for high-paying jobs are attracted to the opportunities provided by growth in sectors such as finance and law. This in turn causes the development of city amenities such as gyms, restaurants and bars, making it an even more attractive place to live.

那么英国的其他城市呢?英国国家统计局的数据显示,从2002年到2015年,利物浦、伯明翰和曼彻斯特等城市的人口增长率分别为181%、163%和149%。寻求高薪工作的年轻专业人才都涌进金融和法律等岗位需求上升的行业。这进而促进了城市设施的发展,如健身房,餐厅和酒吧。因此,这座城市变得更有定居吸引力。

So are people in the UK leaving cities? It depends on where you look. What does seem clear is that people's views on the advantages of urban living may change as they get older. Where once was opportunity, now there may be hassle. Has your relationship with a city changed over time?

那么,英国人正在离开城市吗?这取决于大家看问题的角度。有一点似乎很清楚,随着年龄的增长,人们对城市生活优势的看法可能会发生变化。曾经有机会的地方,现在可能有麻烦。你和一个城市的关系是否随着时间而改变?

 

词汇表

densely populated

人口密集的

hub

中心

transit

运输

commerce

商务、商业

swathe

大片、大量的

society

社会

culture

文化

urban settlement

城市定居点

megacity

(人口超过一千万的)巨型城市

inhabitant

居民

capital

首都

population

人口

birth rate

出生率

mortality rate

死亡率

immigration

移民

migrate

(大批)移居,迁移

metropolis

大都市

flock

蜂拥而至

municipality

市政当局

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