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BBC: 为何明知吸烟有害健康 却还是有人在吸烟?

kira86 于2020-04-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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研究发现,尽管有大量的警示告诫人们吸烟有害健康,目前全球十分之一的死亡是由吸烟导致。为什么有些人还在吸烟呢?“随身英语”讨论这背后的原因,以及帮助人们戒烟的举
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

Who’s still smoking?

谁还在吸烟?

If you walked into a cafe or pub in the UK a few years ago, chances were you’d enter a room filled with cigarette smoke. The aroma of burning tobacco lingered on your clothes for the rest of day and your health took a battering from passive smoking. It’s no wonder that in many countries smoking in public places has now been banned, and those who choose to do it have to inhale on the pavements outside.

几年前,如果你走进英国的一家咖啡馆或酒吧,你很可能会发现房间里乌烟瘴气的。接下来的一天,你的衣服上都弥漫着烟草燃烧的气味,被动吸烟严重损害了你的健康。难怪许多国家现在禁止在公共场所吸烟,而那些选择在公共场所吸烟的人不得不在外面的人行道上吸烟。

Laws restricting where people can light up and repeated health warnings have seen many people quit the habit. But despite a decline in smoking rates worldwide, a report published in the medical journal The Lancet in 2017 found that smoking causes one in ten deaths worldwide, half of them in just four countries - China, India, the US and Russia. When population growth is taken into account, there is actually an increase in the overall number of smokers. So why - despite the warning signs - are these people still doing it?

法律对吸烟场所的限制以及不断的健康警告让很多人戒掉了吸烟的习惯。然而,尽管全球吸烟率有所下降,2017年发表在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(the Lancet)上的一份报告发现,全球十分之一的人死于吸烟,其中一半死亡发生在四个国家——中国、印度、美国和俄罗斯。如果把人口增长考虑在内,实际上吸烟者的总数在增加。那么,尽管出现了警告信号,为什么这些人还在这样做呢?

Much of it seems to be connected to people’s cultural, economic and social background. In the UK, for example, the Office for National Statistics found that people living on a low income are disproportionately likely to smoke. And one in four manual workers smokes, compared with one in ten of those in professional or managerial jobs. Dr Leonie Brose from King's College London, writing about this for the BBC, says there are “startling” regional variations with many more pregnant women smoking in deprived areas. And people with mental health problems are “50% more likely to smoke than the rest of the population”. She suggests these groups can have higher levels of dependence, making it harder to give up and are also more likely to be around other smokers, making it seem like normal behaviour.

这似乎与人们的文化、经济和社会背景有关。例如,英国国家统计局发现,低收入人群吸烟的比例过高。四分之一的体力劳动者都吸烟,而从事专业或管理工作的人吸烟的比例为十分之一。伦敦大学国王学院的莱奥尼·布罗斯博士在为BBC撰写的一篇文章中指出,在贫困地区,孕妇吸烟的情况体现出惊人的地区差异。有精神健康问题的人“吸烟的可能性比其他人高出50%”。她认为,这些群体可能有更高的依赖性,使得戒烟变得更加困难,而且更有可能与其他吸烟者为伍,使吸烟看起来像是正常的行为。

Increasing the price of cigarettes and making packaging plainer are two ways to discourage smoking; and lower-risk nicotine patches and e-cigarettes are available as an alternative, though they can be just as addictive. It’s obvious something needs to be done and recently the UK government pledged to end smoking in England by 2030 as part of a range of measures to tackle the causes of preventable ill health. But as Dr Leonie Brose writes, “with more than 200 deaths in England per day [caused by smoking-related diseases,] that’s the equivalent to a plane crashing every day.” Imagine what the number must be globally.

提高香烟价格和使包装更平实是阻止吸烟的两种方法;低风险的尼古丁贴片和电子烟也可以作为香烟替代品,尽管它们也会让人上瘾。很明显,我们需要有所行动。最近,英国政府承诺到2030年实现全英国禁烟,这是解决可预防疾病的一系列措施的一部分。但正如莱奥尼·布洛斯博士所写的那样,“英国每天有200多人(死于与吸烟有关的疾病),这相当于每天都有一架飞机坠毁。”想象一下这个数字在全球范围内会是多少。

 

词汇表

cigarette smoke

香烟的烟雾

aroma

(烟草的)气味

tobacco

烟草

passive smoking

被动吸烟

inhale

吸入(烟)

light up

点烟

quit the habit

戒除恶习

smoker

吸烟者

warning sign

警告,告诫

to give up

戒掉……

packaging

包装

nicotine patch

(贴在皮肤上帮助戒烟的)尼古丁贴片

e-cigarette

电子烟

addictive

使人上瘾的

preventable

可预防的

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