We all feel in control of our actions and thoughts,It's what defines us,But as biology and technology begin to intertwine,the question remains:Could your brain be hacked?
The truth is,the brain is an electrical device,And because of this,we can interface it to our own electronic devices,In fact,hundreds of thousands of people are already taking advantage of this with cochlear implants,a type of hearing aid which make sound in the brain through electrical impulses,However,electricity isn't exactly precise.
大脑其实是个电气设备。正因此 我们可以把它接到自己的电子设备上。现在 数十万人已经得益于此，通过电子耳蜗 这是一种助听器，通过电冲动让人产生听觉。但是 电信号并不特别精确。
It ends up spreading signals across many neurons in the brain,And in the case of hearing,this can make the signal muddy or blurry.To solve this problem,researchers have found a way to use light,which you can aim and it's much more precise to stimulate the desire parts of the brain.And it's this light that may be the key to very specific control over the brain.
最后 信号会波及脑内许多神经元。而在听觉方面 这会让信号变模糊。为了解决这个问题 研究者找到了一种利用光的方式，瞄准一点的方式在刺激大脑特定部分上更精确，光也可能成为精确控制大脑的秘诀。
But first,these cells must somehow learn how to use light as an input source.As crazy as it might seem a harmless none reproducing virus is used to insert genes in the desired neurons or brain cells.These genes are taken from other organisms that use light to survive such as algae.
但首先 这些细胞得知道怎么利用光作为输入源。这听上去有点疯狂 不可复制的无害病毒被用来，来向目标神经元或脑细胞中插入基因。这些基因来自于需光生存的有机体 如藻类。
Surprisingly,we use the same genetic and cellular mechanisms as them,So if you take DNA from one and insert it in another.it still works,These genes encode for proteins that allow the neuron or brain cell to act as a solar cell.As a result,they react to incoming light and convert it to electronic signal,while cells without the new DNA remain unreacitive,All we need now is an optical source to shine light on these neurons.when we want them activated.
惊人的是 人类与其基因与细胞机理相同。因此 如果你将一者的DNA移植到另一者后，它还能用。这些基因可编组出使神经或者脑细胞 充当太阳能电池的蛋白质。最终 它们对射入光线产生反应 将其转变成电信号 而无新DNA的细胞仍不反应。我们缺的只是能在需要它们被激发时 照亮它们的光源。
Create the set up within the reward system of the brain,and you could make someone happy with the push of a button,Stick it into the motor cortex and yu could control parts of movement.And this is exactly what scientists have done.This mouse has fiber optic cables wired into its right motor cortex,which controls movement to the left.
As soon as the light is shot into its altered solar panel neurons,it cannot help but run to the left,Its thoughts and actions have been hacked.So,what happens when we begin to stick technology into our brains?On the one hand,it may open the doors to managing physically debilitating diseases,personality disorders or even conditions such as depression.Turn on or off the necessary cells,and wall up.
当其太阳能神经元受到光照时，它会不由自主地向左跑。它的思想和动作被“黑”了。那么 当我们开始用科技武装大脑时会发生什么？一方面 它将打开治疗躯体衰竭性疾病，人格障碍甚至抑郁等症状的大门。打开或关闭必要的细胞 堵住它们。
Heck,the average person maybe able to integrate this technology in order to augment their vision.or play video games in their mind,And as we began to understand the intricacies of our brain,which region specifically control which actions and thoughts,this technology will bear even more significance.
另外 常人也可能借助这种科技来增强视觉能力，或者在脑海中玩游戏。同时 当我们开始理解大脑之错综复杂时，哪个区域控制那种行为或思想，这项科技的影响力将更深远。
However,the ethical concerns and risks look quietly around the corner,So,knowing that your brain could be hacked,would you want this technology in your brain?
但是 伦理方面的顾虑也在暗处张望。那么 既然知道你的大脑可以被黑，还想把这种科技装到脑子里吗？