cocotang 于2014-11-09发布 l 已有人浏览
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The United States is shockingly a bunch of states that are united.It was just 13 to start with,but as time marched on,the border marked west,bring as to today and the 48 contiguous states plus Alaska and Hawaii usually drawn in these little boxes,not to scale because Hawaii is in the middle of the vast ocean of deadly nothingness.and Alaska is monstrous.

美利坚合众国是一堆联合的州。一开始只有十三个,但随着时间流逝 边界西移,形成了今天四十八个相互接壤的州 还有阿拉斯加和夏威夷 它们常不以相同比例尺绘于这些小方格中 因为夏威夷在一片虚无的汪洋大海中央 而阿拉斯加大得像个怪物。

Unlike other unions,where members can leave if they so choose,statehood is eternal.Even for you,Texas.Now,how the federal government works is a story for another time,but at the moment,all you need know is that Congrress,where national laws are written is made of representative sent from the states.

美国不像其它联盟 成员可以想离开就离开,它们的地位是永恒的。德克萨斯 你也一样。欲知联邦政府如何工作 且听下回分解。但现在你只需要知道国会就行,国会起草全国性的法令 由各州派来的议员组成。

Now,there are some non-state gaps not visible on this map.The first is Washington D.C.the nation's capital,which is a stateless limbo land between Maryland and Virginia.As D.C.is a city without a state it puts her under the control of congress.meaning that all the other states get the final say on,how D.C.is run while she doesn't get a vote in anything.It didn't matter when this District of Columbia was basically uninhabited.since more people live in D.C.now than do in a couple of states,It's an uncomfortable arrangement.

有些间隔并非州界 在地图上并不可见。第一个是华盛顿特区 美国国都,她位于马里兰州和弗吉尼亚州之间 但边界很模糊。由于华盛顿特区不属于任何一个州 于是她受到国会的管辖 意即所有其他的州对华盛顿特区如何运转 具有最终决定权 而特区却无法作出决定。首都基本没人住的时候还无所谓 自从现在住在首都的人比一些州的居民都多 这样的安排就令人不适了。

The other gaps on the map are American Indian reservations which are numerous.United States kind of administers them.while sort of treating them as foreign nations,which means you could draw these states boundaries to look like this.because the reservations are kind of apart from those states.But the American Indian Reservations are such.a full of asterisks also sensitive situations.

地图上另一些间隙是众多的印第安人保留区。美国有点像是在管辖着它们 但同时也把它们类似于外国来对待 也就是说 你可以把州界这样来画 因为保留区有点像是与这些州分离开来。但美国印第安人保留区 有许多加星号的敏感的情况.

It's also better as a story for another time.Gaps aside,the continent and Hawaii is mostly straightforward but there's more than just these United States.When the U.S.ran out of land to Manifest Destiny,she learned from the best and territory fight a whole bunch of islands.

我们还是下次再说好了。除了这些间隙 美国本土和夏威夷说来直白明了 但合众国的成员不止这些。当美国无法再进行土地扩张事实,她向老大哥英国学习 争夺到了许多岛屿。

First up,Puerto Rico.An organized and incooperated territory of US.This means she is self governing to some extent,and then all of U.S.constitution doesn't automatically apply on the island.Now 3.7 million people live in Puerto Rico,which is 91% of the people living on U.S.territorial islands and more people than live in 21 of the states.

首先就是波多黎各 它是非合并建制领土。这意味着她在某种意义上是自治的,因此并非所有的美国宪法都在岛上自动适用。现在有370万人生活在波多黎各,占美国海外岛屿领土的91% 比这21个州的人口都要多。

And U.S.treats Puerto Rico as a state in almost all but names.Possibly soon she will be anyway.bring the number of stars to a nice even 51.But Puerto Rico isn't the only organized incooperated territory.There is also Guam,which was acquired in the Spanish-American war along with Puerto Rico.There's the Northern Mariana Islands taken from Japan during WWII and the US Virgin Islands taken from nobody.Denmark sold her.The people in these territories are American citizens.

美国已经把波多黎各当做一个实质上的州。她有可能很快就成为一个州。让国旗上的星星数目匀称 变成51个。但是波多黎各并不是唯一的非合并建制领土。还有关岛 它是美国在同西班牙的战争中 随波多黎各一同得到的,还有美国在二战中从日本攫取的被马里亚纳群岛 还有美属维尔京群岛。丹麦把她卖给了美国,这些领土上的人是美国公民。

In most ways the territories are just like DC.Congress can override their local government and they don't have representation because no state-tation,But otherwise,it's America.Actually the territories and D.C.do get to elect congressional representatives to attend all of the meetings but just can't vote in any of them which is either the worst job in the world,or the best job in the world depending on the kind of person who gets it.Also,since votes for president are based on state population citizens in the territories can't vote.which,as mentioned in the previous video,leaved to the weird situation that Americans who lives in the foreign countries.can vote for president in the state where they last lived,while Americans who live in America just in the territory can not.

大多情况下这些领土和华盛顿特区一样。美国国会直接管辖其地方政府 但是他们在国会没有代表权 因为他们并不是一个州 不过他们仍属于美国。这些领土和华盛顿特区确实选出了国会议员 他们参加所有会议 但是不能对任何提案投票 这要么是世界上最糟糕的工作,要么是世界上最好的工作 就看是谁得到这份工了。因为总统的选票是基于各州的人口,海外领土上的公民无法投票。正如我们上一个视频提到的,形成了一种奇怪的情况 在国外的美国人 能够向最后曾居住的州给总统投票,但有些居住在美国领土的美国人却不能投票。

Along with these unincorporated organized territories,there are also unincorporated unorganized territories.Actually quite a few,They are Howland Island,Navassa Island,Wake Island,Jarvis Island,Johnston Atoll,Kingman Reef,Midway Reef,Serranilla Bank,and Bajo Nuevo Bank.Most of these were acquired under the delightfully Guano Island Act.when the U.S.decided she wanted a bunch of Islands filled with bird poop,No,really the US just straight up brutal law to declare that those islands are now hers.Unorganized in this system means there's no local governments on these islands,because no one lives in these places,Some of them are barely above the waterline.

除了这些非合并建制领土,还有非合并非建制领土。实际上有挺多的。豪兰岛 纳弗沙岛 威克岛 贾维斯岛 约翰斯顿环礁,金曼礁 中途岛 塞拉尼纳岛和海燕群岛。大多数岛屿都是由于“鸟粪岛法案”而获得的。当时美国觉得 她需要许多装满鸟屎的岛屿。不 实际上美国是直截了当地声明 这些岛屿就是她的。在这个制度中 非建制的意思是这些岛屿中没有地方政府 因为那些地方无人居住。有些岛屿几乎在水线以下。

Now,the weird category is the unorganized incorporated territories,of which there is one,the Palmyra Atoll.claimed by the US after the totally peaceful annexation of Hawaii.There are currently an uninhabited nature reserve,but incorporated means that the US constitution applies here to who?The Palmyra Atoll is like that question about a tree falling in the forest.If there are no people for the constitution to apply to.Does the constitution still apply?Yes.

有一个奇怪的分类是合并非建制领土,它只有一个 巴尔米拉环礁。在美国“和平”兼并夏威夷后 声明为美国领土。现有一个无人居住的自然保护区,那合并意味着美国宪法能对谁起效呢?巴尔米拉环礁的情况就像一颗树倒在森林里那样。如果没有人住在宪法适用的地区。宪法还适用吗 答案是 能。

This means if a foreigner gives birth on this uninhabited strip,and doesn't die from the nature,their child would be an American citizen.Now,this category is empty.It's where territories go before they come state.when basically the constitution fully applies and it's last occupied by Hawaii.We got full circle,but there is one territory we've left out.American Samoa,home to 55,000 people.Uniquely,American Samoans don't get to be citizens,but instead are American Nationals.They can live in the states but can't vote in presidential elections.unless they go to the immigration process like any foreigner.

这意味着如果一个外国人在这片无人岛上生下一个孩子,并且没有死去 他们的孩子就会成为美国公民。现在这个类别是空的。这是领土成为州之前所在 之地。此时宪法在领土上完全适用 夏威夷曾最后一次占据这个类别。我们转了一圈 但我们还漏掉了一个地方。美属萨摩亚 有五万五千人住在那儿。美属萨摩亚人特别之处在于他们并非美国公民,但却是美国国民。他们可以在各州居住 但却不能在总统选举中投票 除非他们像外国人那样走移民程序。

Even though,in all other ways,they are indistinguishable from citizens.This is unique to American Samoa and there seems to be no reason for it other than that the congress hasn't gotten around to updating the system.The American Samoa is in the no government category.like it's the Lord of the Files over there.which it obviously isn't.American Samoa with its organized governments needs to go over here,and Puerto Rico,essentially a state,needs to go over here,and the empty Palmyra Atoll needs to go over here.But don't hold your breath for the paper work.to make it way through Congress any time soon.

即便如此 在其它任何方面 他们与公民并无区别。这对于美属萨摩亚来说非常独特 看上去毫无缘由 国会并没有使得这样的制度得到升级。美属萨摩亚在无政府的分类中。就像分类中的“蝇王”。很明显它不是。有着建制政府的美属萨摩亚 应该被移到这儿,波多黎各 实际上是一个州 应该移到这,无人居住的巴尔米拉环礁 应该被移到这儿。但是对于国会能尽快通过这些法案   还是别期望太高了 

So that's all the territory of the United States.But there is one final thing to talk about.Three tiny nations:Palau,The Marshal Islands,and the Federated Sates of Micronesia.This last as an convenient domain name .FM first choice of quality podcast everywhere HINT HINT CLICK CLICK ,These are separate countries with UN seats and everything but they have quote Compact of Free Association with the United States.

所以这就是美国的所有领土了。但是最后还要提一点。三个小国家 帕劳 马绍尔群岛 密克罗尼西亚联邦。最后一个国家有个合适的域名。fm 是各地高品质播客的不二选择 啪啪啪 这些国家是独立的 它们有联合国席位 有各种权利 但它们与美国签订了一个自由联合条约。

The deal is that the US provides economic support and military defense to the compact nations in return for being allowed to build military bases there.Also,compact citizens can live and work in the United States and vice versa.The Americans wanting to live aboard.you have three easy options.So that's America,50 states,many reservations.one district,lots of islands territories,some even with people three tiny associated countries.

条约规定 美国向其提供经济支持和军事防卫 反过来 条约国允许美国在其领土建设军事基地。条约国公民可以在美国居住和工作 反之亦然。想在国外生活的美国人 你们有三个便利的选择。这就是美国 五十个州 许多保留地 一个特区 许多岛屿和海外领土 有的甚至有人居住 还有三个小盟国。

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