Please,put on your headphones.I promise there won't be any loud sounds,but this video is going to hurt.There's study about hyper sounds and how they cause headaches.These sounds are too high-pitch to hear like the one added to this video,playing right now,But cause headaches,they still do.The hyper sound in your headphones is pressing on your inner ears,stressing the nerves,leading to your brain,where if the headache hasn't started already,it's soon will,As the exposure causes headaches after only 10 seconds.
Oh,my!Can you feel it?That pressure in your ears spreading to your now throbbing brain? Because... You shouldn't.This study is made up,and there's no hyper sound in the audio.But some of you will have begun to feel a headache.Why?The Nocebo Effect.A nocebo is harmless thing,like a video with non-existent hyper sound.that causes harm like a headache because you belive it's harmful.
我勒个去 感觉到了吗？你耳内的压力正扩散到了，隐隐作痛的大脑？因为 不会的啦。这项研究是虚构的，视频中也没有超声，但是一部分人仍开始感到头痛。为什么呢？因为“反安慰剂效应”反安慰是无害的，如根本没有超声的视频，它会对人造成伤害，如头痛 因为你相信它有害。
That sounds like Voodoo but there's real science behind the Nocebo Effect,which is more than an irritating parlor trick,it causes real problems,like in medicine.When testing a new drug doctors get a group of sick people give half of them the new drug and give the other half a fake pill that does nothing.But which they're told is real.This is how science finds the stuff that works amongst the junk that doesn't.
听上去像是巫毒娃娃，但反安慰剂效应背后是实打实的科学，这远非房间里刺激人的小把戏，它会造成实际问题 比如医学方面，测试新药时，医生会召集一群病人，让一半人服用药物 另一半人服用无效的药片，而他们被告知用的是真药，这就是科学辨别真材衬料的方法。
But new drugs have side effects,and sometimes patients drop out of the experiment because of them.No surprise there,But some people on the fake also drop out from the side effects,Side effects they've gotten from a drug they aren't taking.but because they think they're on the real thing.They've also thought themselves into the side effects.
Now maybe this is just a case of misattribution:people get headaches and if they're joined a drug trial that lists headaches in the side effects,it's natural to blame the new drug,and that certainly happens to some extent.But the Nocebo Effect is more than just misattribution,It causes real,additional harm that scientists can measure in cruel,cruel experiments,and this is one of the reasons there not an over abundance of research on nocoboes.Approach your friendly neighborhood ethics board with an experiment designed to hurt people and they'll frown on that.
But sometimes nocebo experiments do get approved to the benefit of science and humanity,if not the participants.For example,under the right conditions some people who expect a harmless injection.will give them a rash will get a rash,but for people who expect nothing to happen,nothing is exactly what happens.And fake pills can be additive:take test subjects off pills they believe are addictive.and some will experience nocebic withdrawal symptoms like pain and fatigue from the pills that they could never have been addicted to in the first place.
Another experiment gave people harmless injections,told half of them to just sit there and told the other half that their pain would increase for the next thirty minutes-which it did.But in this situation there is a drug that can block the Nocebo Effect.and those who were told the injection would hurt,but were also secretly given an nocebo-blocking drug did not report an increase in pain.showing that the Necebo Effect is real,physical process.
另一个实验中，人们接受了无害注射，一半人被要求静坐 另一半人被告知他们的疼痛会在30分钟内持续加重，很多人的确会，但这种情况中 还有一种药物可以阻断反安慰剂效应，那些被告知注射会引发疼痛，但被秘密注射了阻隔反安慰药物的人未报告疼痛加重，这表明反安慰剂效应是真实存在的过程。
In all these nocebo experiments it's the belief in harm that matters.If someone dressed as a voodoo witch doctor popped up and hexed you with a curse of great pain,no effect.But,in a room with a real doctor and his clipboard and a big science machine and a needle in your arm,you'll take his words rather more seriously.Which is why doctors say"This won't hurt a bit"rather than"Oh this? It's going to hurt.Like A LOT."which,by the way,was a real experiment done on women undergoing labor during spinal injections.Guess how that turned out?
这些实验中最重要的是对其危害的深信不疑，如果一名装扮成巫毒娃娃的医生跳出来，诅咒你将经受莫大的痛苦无效。但在一个房间内，真实的医生拿着记录版，巨大的仪器。手上也插着针头，你一定会仔细考虑医生的话，这也是医生为什么说“这一点都不疼”而不是“哦这货 会疼的 疼得要命啊”而这也是孕妇接受脊髓注射生产时做过的真实实验，猜猜结果如何？
But nocebos don't end here.While illnesses like the flu,spread from contact with disgusting,germ-infected humans and the things they touch with their,disgusting germy hands,a nocebo spreads from mind to mind,no contact required.A notable example happened in a Tennessee high school.One teacher reported a strange smell in her classroom.and developed symptoms of headache nausea,and difficulty breathing.These symptoms spread to some of her students and from them to others in the school.Almost two hundred people ended up at the local hospital.but all medical tests came back with nothing,nor was anything harmful found at the school.
This was a nocebo,the belief that the air was making them sick,spread from mind to mind.Everyone who got sick heard about the symptoms from someone else.When this happens,it's called mass psychogenic illness.The treatment in these cases is to separate those with symptoms from the rest,and reassure the ill that yes,their symptoms are real,but no they haven't been exposed to anything toxic,and yes people are getting better quickly.
This last is one of the indicators that separates a real poison gas leak or biological weapon from mass psychogenic illness.But the final factor,number of cases increasing with greater media coverage,can lead to this kind of thing spreading far and wide.Take,electrosensitives.people who get nausea-among other things from exposure to parts of the electromagnetic spectrum,notably WiFi the density of which is increasing over time.forcing particularly bad sufferers to retreat to places like the creepy-sounding radio silence zone in,where else,West Virginia.
最后是区分有毒气体泄漏，生休袭击和群体心因性疾病的标志之一。而最后一个因素，案例随着媒体广泛报道而增加，会导致这种情况大规模扩散。比如 电敏感，一些人暴露在部分波长的电磁波内会产生恶心等其他症状，最有名的是WiFi 其密度会随着时间增加，迫使重症患者躲到像西弗吉尼亚的无线电静默区这类地方。
But put electrosensitives in a room with a WiFi router and they can't actually tell via their symptoms if it's on or off.Instead their symptoms track with being told if it's on or off.And if you make a group of people without elecctrosensitivity watch a news report on,how Wifi makes you ill while another group watches something uninformative and afterward expose both groups to a fake Wifi signal only those who watched the news report feel sick.
不过 把电敏感者带到有WiFi路由器的屋子里，他们也没法凭症状判断路由器是否开启，而其症状也和被告知的开启状态保持一致。如果你召集一群没有电敏感症的人看一则WiFi致病的新闻 而另一组看一则无内涵的新闻，之后将两组成员暴露在假WiFi信号下，只有看效新闻的人会感到不适。
There's a similar phenomenon called "wind farm disease"with similar side effects,Which turns up where it's been talked about on the lacal news,but not in other places in the same country with the same wind farms where it isn't.All this makes it too easy to mock people for thinking they're getting sick from WiFi or Wind farms or Wind farms with WiFi,but it's important to realize they're not crazy.The side effects are real,they're just wrong about the source:all evidence points to the belief in electronsensitivy as the cause of electrosensitivity.
一种类似现象“风电场症”也会产生类似的副作用，它在被当地新闻提及的地区出现，而同一国家 有着相同风电场，但新闻未提及的地区不会出现，这也极易让人去嘲笑那些自认为因WiFi生病的人，或者 风电场 或者有WiFi的风电场，不过要记住 他们没疯，这些副作用真的存在，他们只是弄错了成因，这些证据说明 相信“电敏感”会造成“电敏感”。
Which means the news reports talking about these illnesses are spreading a kind of mind virus.And while these are exotic examples,there is also evidence that some allergies and asthma cases are nocebic and thus able to be spread in the same way.To be clear:if someone's having an asthma attack.that's not the time to tell them you know they're being a drama llama,because you watched an Internet video about the Necebo Effect.
也就是说，谈论这些病症的新闻也是在传播意识疾病，尽管这些都是外因 也有证据表明，一些过敏和哮喘的案例同具反安慰剂性 并会通过同样的方式传播，说清楚了，如果有人哮喘发作，这不是说“草泥马 特么又来玩这套”的时候，就凭着你看过的一个关于“反安慰剂效应”的视频。
They're really having an asthma attack and they really need something to make it stop and that's really not you showing off your knowledge.Harmful things aren't harmful just because we believe they are.The right does of arsenic will kill you as surely as an anvil to the head.no matter your insistence otherwise.But the Nocebo Effect does show that our beliefs about otherwise harmless things can make them harmful.Which means that our voodoo doctor's hex from before really could work.but only if you were foolish enough to believe him.