cocotang 于2014-11-25发布 l 已有人浏览
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Hey,Vsauce,Michael here.But now,I'm not.I'm gone,like 90% of the original silent films ever made.Six of the seven wonders of the ancient world.Deleted like that text you thought twice about sending,or a Snapchat photo.Right?When Stallin decided that Trotsky was an enemy of the state,he had Trotsky removed photos he appeared in with linen.

嘿 这里是Vsauce 我是Michael,但现在 我不见了。我和90%曾经出现的默片一样 消失了。和七分之六的史前奇观一样,和你再三考虑最后删掉的信息一样,还有Snapchat的照片。对么?当斯大林将托洛茨基认定为国家公敌后,他把出现在照片中的托洛茨基替换成了亚麻布。

Plenty of software tool and professional services allow you to do the same.Don't just forget the actual attendees of the moment in time,delete it.But where do things go when they are deleted? The Google Ngram Viewer allows you to search words and phrases in 5.2 million books,published between 1500 and 2008.It's great way to see how the words we use have changed over time.

很多软件工具和专业服务都能帮你做到同样的事。对于那一刻的在场者 不能只忘了他们 还得除掉他们。而那些被删除的事物去哪了?Google Ngram Viewer能帮你搜索到1500-2008年间出版的520万册书出现的词汇。这是一种很好的领略词汇使用变迁的方式。

1979 was a significant year.According to the Ngram Viewer,it was the first time we began to use the word"Delete"more often than the word "Erase".Biological deletion still wins though,forget is by far more pervasive in our communication,But how does a computer forget? Moving a file to the trash is just the beginning.To protect against the accidntal deletion,when thrown into a trash,a file remains on your computer in temporary directory a sort of purgatory,where it awaits a more ultimate deletion,but can be resurrected if you wish.

1979年是极其重要的一年。根据Ngram Viewer这是我们使用“删除”频率超过“抹去”的第一年。但是生理上的“删除”还是占了上风,遗忘在我们的交流中仍很普遍,但是计算机是怎么“遗忘”的呢?把文件移到回收站仅仅是一个开始,为了防止误删,当文件被仍到回收站后 它仍存在于电脑的一个临时路径内,正如炼狱 在那它等待着被更高级的方式删除,但如果你希望的话 他们可被恢复。

When you empty the trash,you are warned that you cannot undo the action.But when you empty the trash,the physical space inhabited by the file isn't actually emptied.It's marked as empty,available if and when new data needs to be stored somewhere.The file's home has become available real estate.But the file itself hasn't moved out.Only the pointers have gone away.Pointers are another type of data on your drive that point to places in memory where the actual file they are referencing can be found.They're a bit like the table of contents,which means that on most operating systems deleting a file and emptying the trash is like deleting a chapter from a book by turning to the table of the contents,and marking the chapter as Empty.

当你清空回收站时 会看到“此操作不可撤销”的警告。但当你清空回收站后,文件曾占有的物理空间并未被清空。它被标记为“空” 在新数据寻求存储空间时可用,文件的老家成了可用的不动产。但文件本身并未被移除。只有指针消失了。指针是你硬盘中的另一种数据 它指向存储器的各个位置,它们指向的文件就可以在那里被找到。它们有点像是一个目录表,也就是说在大多数操作系统中,删除一个文件 清空回收站就像是通过转向目录表 将某个章节标识为“空”,从而删除文件。

There's nothing here,do what ou want with the pages.To a computer reading the table of the contents,it looks like the space is empty.But of course that doesn't change the fact that the contents of the chapter are still there.Special data recovery tools look through memory marked empty,available to see what's actually there.If you're lucky,they can even find the file and save it,bring it back,mark it not available,undelete it.But in some of the file has already been overwritten can be problems.The file can be corrupted.melted together with other data like kind of digital frankenstein's monsters.

那里什么也没有 这几页你随意处理。对于一台正在读取目录表的计算机而言,这块空间看上去是空的。而当然 这并不会改变一个事实 目录所指向章节的内容还在那。特殊数据还原工具扫描被标识为空 可用的内存空间,以寻找那里的数据。如果你够幸运 工个甚至能找到原先的文件并保存,把它救回来,将其标识为不可用 恢复它。但其中一些已被覆盖的文件就了问题。这些文件损坏了。与其他数据融合在一起 成了一种电子上的弗兰肯斯坦怪物。

A couple of years ago,a laptop that belonged to photographer Melanie Willhide was stolen.It contained many of her recent digital photos.Luckily police were able to return the laptop to her.They found it in a car they pulled over.But the thief had wiped the laptop's hard drive clean and had been using it for his own purposes.Data recovery experts were able to find some of her files still there on the empty space,but the files had been slightly overwritten by things the thief had done.they've been corrupted,but in a really cool way.

几年前 摄影师Melanie Willhide的一台笔记本电脑被盗。电脑中有很多她最遑制作的数码照片。很幸运 警方终将电脑物归原主,他们是在迫使停靠路边的一辆车中发现的,但是窃贼把笔记本硬盘的数据全清空了,同时也已经将其挪为己用。数据还原专家成功找到了一些摄影师的文件,文件仍在“空”的区域,但由于窃贼所做的事 这些文件被轻微地覆盖了。它们损坏了 但是方式很神奇。

So cool Willhide decide to exhibit the work.She titled the show after the thief who made it possible.To Adrian Rodriguez,With Love.If you want to delete a file so completely,it can't be even recovered in cool,weird way,like Willhide's photos,you will need to overwrite the unwanted file completely.Deny the file a proper burial and rearrange its corpse with new data.One overwrite should be fine but some people do it as many as 35.Even 35 overwrites might not be enough.Sure the overwritten data is hidden,but what about bad sectors?

神奇到Willhide决定将作品展览出来。她将展出以对此展有功的窃贼之名命名同,致Adrian Rodriguez 满满的都是爱。如果你想彻彻底底删除一个文件以至于,通过极神奇古怪的方式也无法还原 正如Willhide 的照片,你需要将不想要的文件完全重写。毁了文件的葬身之处 将其尸体用新数据掩盖。一次重写也许足以 但有些人会重写多达35猵遍。即使35次也可能不够。重写前的数据已不见了 但是损坏扇区中的数据呢?

These are parts of a drive that devices can't access.Because of fail transactors or physical file damage,an overwrite won't be able to reach them,meaning any data that was ever put there stays there.So if you are the United States Department of Defence,and you don't want to take any risks,you'll also shred,physically pulverize unwanted drives.The US,Europe,Japan Often send such electronic waste to dumps in Ghana.Like this one.This city in Ghana is known as Earth's Digital Dumping Ground.Why Ghana? Well,it is cheaper to send unsalvagable electronics to Africa,marked as a donation than it is to properly recyle them.

这是磁盘中设备不能直接访问的部分,由于数据传输失败或者物理文件损坏,一次重写碰不到它们,也就意味着原先在那里的数据还留在那。因此 如果你是美国国防部的人,你不想冒任何风险 因此你会粉碎纸张,会在物理上销毁废弃的磁盘。美国 欧洲和日本经常将这类电子废弃倒在加纳。就像这个 加纳的这座城市也被称为“世界电子垃圾填埋场”。为什么是加纳 将无法再利用的电子垃圾运到非洲成本低,运到非洲作为“捐助”的成本低于适当回收。

But there,in these electronic dumps,the files can still be brought back to life.Organized criminals,operating in Ghana,have managed to successfully recover data from unregulated electronic edumps.They have been able to find confidential multi-million dollar agreements involving the Defense and Intelligence Agency,Homeland Security and the TSA.Shredding paper to get rid of whatever used to be on the paper isn't even safe,either.It's not easy and it doesn't always work.By scanning shreds of paper,computer software can match the pieces together.But in the past,shredded documents have been unshred by hand.

但在那里 在电子垃圾场中 那些文件仍可重获新生。在加纳动作的有组织犯罪集团,成功地从无人监管的电子废物中还原出了数据。他们成功地发现了绝密的 价值万亿美元的协议 协议牵涉到国防和情报机构 国安局和运输安全局。通过粉碎纸张来除去纸上原有的信息,也不安全。这同样也不简单 也不见得总是奏效。电脑软件可以通过扫描纸张的碎片将其拼好。但在过去 撕毁的文件都是用人工的方式拼接起来的。

In 1979,Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran.With the help of local carpet weavers and years of hard work,they managed to reassemble thousands of pages of confidential documents shred by the CIA.The smaller the shredded particles are,and the more of them there are,the more difficult the task.So,the Department of Defense required that the majority of shredded particles not exceed 5 square millimeters.If you really want to delete something,destroy it,erase it.Time is on your side.

1979年 伊朗的学生占领了在德黑兰的美国大使馆。在当地地毯织造者的帮助下经过数年艰苦的努力,他们设法把数千页重新拼好,它们都是被中情局粉碎的机密文件。文件的碎片越小,或是说 碎片越多 任务越艰巨。因此 国防部要求文件碎片大多不能超过5平方毫米。如果你真的想删除、毁掉或抹去什么东西。时间是你的有力武器。

And about 5.4 billion years,the sun will become the ultimate shredder.A red giant large enough to swallow earth's whole.Everything will be fine for billions of years.Many accepted models of the universe predict that in 10 to the 100 years,whatever intelligence is left will witness the universe's dark era and its final heat death.The end of the universe,the end of any file,or photo,or memory of you ever be accessed again.Everytime something happens,a little bit of energy is lost.For instance,friction through sound or heat.That energy goes out into the universe a little bit at a time,slowly,more and more.

大约在54亿年之后 太阳会成为终极粉碎机,它会变成一个红巨星 大小足以吞噬整个地球。亿年之后 一切都会过去。许多广为接受的宇宙模型预测在10的100次方年之后 不论什么样的生命形式存在都会见证宇宙的黑暗时代以及它最终的热寂。宇宙的终点,也是任何文件、照片或是你能想起的记忆的终点。每发生一件事 能量就会损失一点儿。例如 通过声音和热量的摩擦。这些损失的能量一点一点地散失到宇宙中慢慢地 起来越多。

Eventually,in a colsed systme,energy becomes homogeneous.Evenly distributed the same everywhere.There's no gradient maximum entropy.In a little glass of iced water,it's pretty quotidian.But given enough time,our entire universe maybe no different.A gradient,a difference in energy from one place to another is necessary for things to happen.For files to be created and read,for life to exist.And in ten to the 100 years,there may not be any usable energy left.

最终 在一个密闭的系统里 能量变得同一。在各处均匀分布。没有了梯度最大熵。在一小杯水里 这个现象很普通。但如果有足够的时间 我们整个宇宙都可能处处相同。能量梯度 两地之间的能量差是事物发生的必备条件。它使得文件得以创造和阅读 它使得生命存于世上。在10的100次方年之后 可用的能量可能不复存在。

In Issac Asimov's short story,"The Last Question"humans are concerned about this.As the story leap fros billions of years into the future,their list of solutions doesn't get any longer than none.So if we think across a grand time scale,is cosmic deletion the freezing of everything,heat death,All we have to look forward to in this universe?We went to the moon,we brought flags with us that we planted on the moon,representing a place on earth.Those American flags on moon are likely erased.Now their symbols and colors bleached by the intense radiation of sun on the lunar surface unfiltered by the atmosphere,the flags are still there,we didn't take them back with us.But now they are enpty,white flags.

在Issac Asimov的短篇小说《最后的问题》中人类很关心这个问题。当这个故事向后跳跃到亿万年之后的未来时,人类的解决方案仍然没能给出。所以如果我们越过一个宏大的时间尺度孝量,来自宇宙的摧毁 万物的冻结、热寂,才是我们对于宇宙的一切期望吗?我们曾登上月球 我们将自带的旗帜 插在月球上 代表地球的一片土地。在月球的美国国旗可能更可能被抹去。现在它们的标志和颜色已经被强烈的太阳辐射褪色,它们插在月球表面 其太阳辐射未被大气所过滤旗帜还在月球 它们没有随同返回地球。所以现在他们已经是空的了 是一面白旗。

White flags representing our surrender to the inevitability of deletion in the universe.But we today are preoccupied with just the opposite,what really saturates our language.what we really seem to talk about is creation.Things happening not loss.Compared to erase,forget and delete,make practically deletes deletion.The flags on the moon are bleached out.But is that bleak?Are they deleted or blank?Like a fresh sheet of paper ready for stories.

Really,it just depend on what you make of it.So thanks for making things.And as always,thanks for watching.

这面白旗代表着人类对于无可避免的毁灭的投降。但是我们现今却关注于恰恰相反的事情,它渗透在我们的语言当中。我们现在好像一直在说“创造”。事情的发生而不是失败。与“擦除”“忘记”和“删除”相比,“创造”实际上删去了“删除”。月球上的旗帜被漂白了。但是不是这就没有指望了 它是被清除了 还是变白了?就像一张崭新的白纸 准备迎接新的故事。

真的 这在于你怎么去理解它。所以多亏了“创造”事物。还是同往常一样 谢谢观看。

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