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英语煎蛋小学堂视频百科77 :先有鸡还是先有蛋(MP3+中英双语)

cocotang 于2014-12-21发布 l 已有人浏览
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英语视频:煎蛋小学堂77 :先有鸡还是先有蛋,以幽默诙谐的方式为你解答那些那些你意想不到的科学小知识,含有中英双语字幕视频,mp3下载。
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It's a question that has perplexed humanity from as early as the anceint greeks,All the way to the twenty first century and we're still dying to know,Which came first? The chicken or the egg?The question would be simple if we took it literally,Egg laying animals existed far before chickens came about,So technically the egg came before the chicken.

这个问题困扰人类的时间之久,可以一直追溯到古希腊时代,时至今日我们依然迫切的想知道真相,到底哪一个先出现?鸡还是蛋?如果我们只看字面意思问题就变得很简单了,卵生动物在鸡类之前很早就出现了,所以技术上讲是蛋先于鸡。

But this question better worded as the chicken or the chicken egg? Focuses more on the cyclical cause and consequence,That is if a chicken is born from an egg.Where did the egg come from?Another chicken presumably which too must have come from an egg.so which came first? On the one side we have team chicken,Research suggests that the protein essential for the formation of chicken eggs.Called OV-17 is only found in chicken ovaries,Without it the chicken eggshell could not be formed.

但这个问题其实应该这么问,先有鸡还是先有鸡蛋?这更侧重于周期性的原因和后果,这就是说如果一只鸡是从蛋里出来的,那蛋又是哪里来的?如果有另一只鸡 那它应该也是从蛋里出来的,那到底是谁先出现?故事的一边是我们的超载鸡阵营,研究者认为形成鸡蛋的核心蛋白质 OV-17 只在鸡类的卵巢中被发现过,没有它的话鸡蛋壳就无法形成。

So without a chicken you technically cannot get a chicken egg.But this all depends on the nature and definition of a chicken egg in the first place.After all is a chicken egg an egg laid by a chicken? Or one that simply contains a chicken? Obviously the OV-17 bearing chicken had to come from somewhere.But if an elephant laid an egg from which a lion hatched,Would it be an elephant egg or a lion egg?

所以如果没有鸡 技术上就无法得到一个鸡蛋,但这还得取决对“鸡蛋”的自然初始定义,毕竟 是鸡下的蛋称作鸡蛋呢?还是能孵出鸡的蛋称为鸡蛋?显然带有OV-17的鸡必须得是来自某处,但如果一只大象下了一个蛋 然后孵出一只狮子,那这是叫做“大象蛋”还是“狮子蛋”?

This leads to the other side of the story:Team Egg.During reproduction Two organisms pass along their genetic information in the from of DNA,But the replication of this DNA is never one hundred percent accurate.And often produces minor changes for the new organism.These small mutations in DNA over thousands of generations create new species.But these genetic mutations must occur in the zygote or initial cell.

这样就出现了故事的另一个阵营:煎蛋队 在生产过程中,两个生物体通过DNA传递他们的基因信息,但有时候对这个DNA的复制并不是百分百准确,这就经常会造成新的生物体出现微小的改变,这种微小的DNA变异在经历数千代之后就会产生新物种,但这种基因突变一定得发生在受精卵或初期细胞中。

So a creature very similar to a chicken (which we could call a proto-chicken),Would have mated with another proto-chicken,And because of a small genetic mutation created the first chicken which grew in an egg.So the egg came first?Well team chicken might argue that this was simply a chicken growing inside of a proto-chicken egg.

所以一个类似鸡的物种(我们就先称之为原型鸡)会同另一只原型鸡交欢,由于微小的基因突变 于是就产生了第一只鸡,从蛋里蹦出来的鸡,所以是先有蛋咯?呵呵 超载鸡方队要抗辩了,这明明是一只从原型鸡的蛋里蹦出来的鸡。

However no-one mutation can ever really constitute a new species.Even though we humans like classify all creatures into different groups and names.This is based on how things currently are.And not how they were millions of years ago,The process of evolution is so gradual that no one proto-chick to chicken birth could really be considered a new species at the time.

然而实际上是没有哪一次特定变异是能导致新物种产生的,即使是我们人类喜欢把所有物种分门别类,我们分类的基础取决于物种当前的样子,而不是它们千万年前的样子,整个进化的过程非常缓慢以至于没法确定哪一次,原型鸡生鸡的特定生产是新物种的产生标志。

Much like how dogs have come from wolves,As humans began to interact with and domesticate wolves,There was no one single point where a wolf gave birth to a dog,But rather as particular traits came about from selective pressures.Such as choosing wolves who were not afraid of humans.Or ones that were less aggressive,Over many generations we conceived big genetic and behavioral trait differences.

这就好比狼演化成狗的过程,当人们开始与狼相处并驯养它们的时候,是没有那个特定时刻是狼生出了一条狗的,但出于选择性压力出现了一些指定的特征,比如选择那些不怕人类的狼,或那些性情相对温和的 通过数代演变我们就得到了基因和行为特征不同的物种。

So where does this leave us? We are left with two scenarios,SOme ealy egg laying species gradually lead to the creation of the proto-chicken,which laid proto-chicken eggs.In one of these eggs there was a mutation causing a slight change,And selective advantage and this was ultimately the first chicken,Which then went on to lay chicken eggs.

但这告诉了我们什么?现在我们有两种情形,一些早期的卵生动物逐步地导致了原型鸡的产生,它们产了一些原型鸡蛋,这其中有一只蛋里发生了基因突变,导致一些微小的选择性优势终就成就了世界上第一只鸡之后它又下了一些鸡蛋。

In this case the chicken technically came first,Or we have a proto-chicken which gave birth to a chicken inside of what we would classify as a chicken egg and as such the egg came first.Which brings us back to the nomenclature and question of what is a chicken egg?Which is a fairly meaningless question,But at the end of the day what we can all agree on is that Regardless of whether it was a chicken egg or a proto-chicken egg,The first true chicken came from an egg,The egg came first!

这种情况下就是先有的鸡,或者那只原型鸡下了一只我们将其归为鸡蛋的蛋,然后从中孵出了小鸡 这样算就是先有的蛋,那我们就又回到了关于命名问题和什么是鸡蛋的问题,可这问题真是稍显无趣啊!但在最后 我们都能同意的一个说法就是,无论它是叫做鸡蛋还是原型鸡蛋,世界第一只真的猛鸡来自于一个蛋。所以先有蛋!

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