You may have heard the saying "the early bird gets the worm",but when it comes to humans,do morning people really have an advantage over right owls?Does one come out on top as more intelligent or successful than the other in this battle over bed time? The somewhat surprising truth is that we have little say in sleep preference as it's almost entirely genetically pre-determined.
你可能听过“早起的鸟儿有虫吃”，而至于人类，起早的真比夜猫子好吗？就起床时间而言 一类人真的会比另一类更成功吗？说实话 睡眠倾向方面我们没啥好说的，因为这大多是由基因决定的。
Chances are,if you're a night owl,it was likely passed down from an ancestor who was also a night owl.And from an evolutionary perspective.it makes sense;having individuals with varying sleeping patterns would allow for better protection of a group throughout day and right.Instead of everybody sleeping at one time,some people naturally stay up later,and some wake up earlier,aware of threats or predators while other sleep.
很可能一只夜猫子，只是另一只夜猫子的后代而已。从进化的角度而言 这也不无道理；人群睡眠规律不同 有助于更好地全天候保护这个群体。并非所有人都会同时入睡 一些人熬得晚些，一些人醒得早 并在他人睡觉时留心威胁和捕食者。
But considering most modern societal activities happen between 9am-5pm,it may seem clear that night owls are put at a disadvantage.And researchers have actually coined the term "social jet lag"to describe the sleep deprivation many experience to accommodate social norms.
不过 介于大多现代社会活动都在上午9点到下午5点间，显然 夜猫子们略逊一筹。研究者们借“社交时差”一词，来描述人们为适应社会规范而产生的睡眠缺乏。
For night owls,this social jet lag feels like living in a different time zone every single day.Considering chronic sleep deprivation has a direct effect on brain functioning,it's no surprise that studies report night owl university students have lower overall grades.
Not to mention early birds tend to display more positive social traits such as being proactive and optimistic,and are less prone to depression or addictions to nicotine,alcohol and food.And we can see these traits represented physically in the brain,particularly the white matter which helps neurons communicate.Night owls exhibit significantly less white matter and,as a result,there are fewer pathways for feel good hormones such as serotonin or dopamine to travel through.
更不用说早起的人积极社交特征更多 比如 更积极 更乐观 不易焦虑，或是沉迷于纳尼克丁 酒精或食物。这些特征在大脑内也有体现，在促进神经交流的白质中尤为明显。夜猫子的白质要少得多，因此 感觉好好荷尔蒙 如血清素和多巴胺 可穿行的通路更少。
But it's not all bad for the late nighters.In fact,they tend to be much more creative,have been found to have higher cognitive abilities.and are known to be risk takers.What they lack in white matter,they make up in cortisol levels.
不过 夜猫子们也并非罪该万死。其实 他们更有创造力，认知能力更强，更倾向于冒险。高水平的皮质醇也弥补了他们白质的缺陷。
This stress hormone"gets your body ready to face an immediate threat,contributing to their risk taking behaviour,which studies show can translate into opportunities and potentially more financial gain.Furthermore,even though morning people can be very energetic right after waking,they tend to lose steam faster than night owls throughout the day.
这种“压力荷尔蒙”让你随时准备应对威胁，使他们更爱冒险 研究也表明他们更易抓住机会 挣得更多。此外 尽管早起鸟起床后精神饱满，他们一天内精力下降的更快。
Both sides perform eually well in reaction-time tests an hour after waking,but after 10 hours of being awake,night owls perform significantly better.Your inner clock is regulated by many proteins which are created from various genes in your DNA.Studies have even shown that a single change of the genetic code,near a gene called Period 1,can result in an hour difference in your waking time.
在刚睡醒后 双方在反应时间比较上势均力敌，但起床10小时后 夜猫子的表现要好得多。你的生物钟由体内多种基因创造出的蛋白质共同管理。研究甚至表明Period 1 基因附近，一个基因序列变化会使你起床时间改变1小时。
疯狂的是 科学家也找到了这些基因与你死亡时间的关系。早起的鸟儿更可能在上午11时左右过世，夜猫子更多在晚上6点前。那年轻人呢 的确 青春期的荷尔蒙变化造就了无数夜猫子，不过 成年后基因再度决定了一切。
As crazy as it seems,scientists also found a correlation between these same genes and your time of death.The early risers were more likely to die around 11am,while the night owls were more likely to die before 6pm.What about teenagers,you say?It's true most tend to be night owls due to the hormonal changes during puberty,but this tends to wane out into your genetic default as you enter adulthood.
So while there may be some truth to early birds getting the worm,night owls aren't exactly lagging behind in life.They're just lagging behind in time!