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英语煎蛋小学堂视频百科84:好吃的“烂东西”(MP3+中英双语)

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英语视频:煎蛋小学堂84:好吃的“烂东西”,以幽默诙谐的方式为你解答那些那些你意想不到的科学小知识,含有中英双语字幕视频,mp3下载。
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Some of our very favorite foods are closer to this than this.That's because coffee,bread,cheese,beer,even chocolate are all home to millions of microbes.In fact,these foods only acquire the tastes,smells,and textures we love because of tiny bacteria and fungi.

某些好吃的看起来更像这个 而不是这个,这是因为咖啡 面包 奶酪 啤酒甚至巧克力乃数百万微生物的家。其实 这些食物拥有我们喜爱的味道 气息和质地 多亏了微生物和细菌。

The vast majority of microbes-about 99%-are actually quite harmless to humans.But the other 1% are nasty enough that our ancestors,and the ancestors of various other mammals and birds-evolved a natural repulsion to stuff that might harbor nasty germs.In general, we think rotten stuff looks and smells disgusting.which,considering what's at stake,isn't overly cautious.

绝大多数微生物 大约99% 都对人类无害。但这剩下的1%对我们的祖先而言够头疼了,许多哺乳动物和鸟类的祖先-进化出对可能含病菌东西的厌恶。总而言之 腐烂物看上去闻起来都很恶心,这在紧要关头并非多虑。

Fortunately,if friendly microbes get to our food first,they can keep the bad guys at bay.Meat left out on the counter provides the perfect conditions for pathogens to flourish:it's warm,moist,and protein-rich,just like our bodies.But with some micromanagement-adding lots of salt,for instance we can help harmless,salt-tolerant microbes outcompete their dangerous but salt-sensitive relatives.

幸运的是 如果有益菌先占领食物 有害菌就会被阻挡在外。桌上的肉为病菌滋生创造了良好的环境:它温湿度适宜 富含蛋白质 和我们的身体一样。用几种微生物管理方法 比如多加盐,我们可以帮助无害 耐盐微生物战胜有害但盐敏的微生物。

A few unrefrigerated months later,we get salami,rather than Salmonelli!Our ancestors stumbled on this kind of controlled spoilage thousands of years ago-either by lucky accidents or out of serious desperation-and we humans have been intentionally spoiling food ever since.Not only to keep our food safe to eat,but also because the microbes we culture can transform it,almost magically,into awesome deliciousness.

在外面晾几个月后 我们得到了腊肠 而不是沙门菌肠!我们的祖先几千年前无意发现了这种防止腐烂的方法,或许是幸运巧合 也或是被逼无奈-从此 人类就开始有意地“放烂”食物。不仅为保证食物安全 还因为我们栽培的细菌,能神奇地变成美味佳肴。

Yeast,for example,gorge on the sugary starch in bread dough,then burp out carbon dioxide that helps give loaves their lift.In a more exotic transformation,bacteria and fungi take turns munching on piles of cacao,mellowing out bitter polyphenols and helping create the complex and delicious taste of chocolate.

比如 酵母贪婪地吞着生面团上的淀粉,吐出二氧化碳 让面团蓬松。在一种更带感的转换中 细菌与真菌轮流吃掉一大堆可可,吐出苦涩的多酚 为巧克力带来繁复而美味的品味。

And deep in cheese caves,mold spores populate small holes and cracks in soon to be blue cheese,digesting big protein and fat molecules into a host of smaller aromatic and flavor compounds,that give the final product its smoothness and rich,funky flavor.But to some,stinky cheese is about as appetizing as licking someone's toes.

而在奶酪洞里,霉菌孢子驻留在将成为蓝纹奶酪的小孔及裂纹中,消化蛋白质和脂肪大分子 产出小而香浓的化合物,赋予最终成品柔软的口感与恶臭道。但在某些人看来 恶臭的奶酪与舔他人脚趾般令人陶醉。

Which isn't that for off,since the bacteria that make some cheese super-stinky are the same ones that cause foot odor.Yum? Even so,these flavors tend to grow on us:not just literally but also figuratively.The more we're exposed to particular microbial funks which can even start in the womb,the more we tend to like them.

这才不是八竿子打不着 因为让奶酪臭气熏天的细菌 就是造成脚臭的细菌。好吃嘛?即使这样 这些味道“长”在我们身上 字面和比喻上皆如此。我们接触某种微生物臭气越多 或许从胎儿时期开始 我们就越喜欢它们。

As a result,people around the world have some very different ideas about how to microbe ify foods.But every culinary culture involves fermentation in one way or another.If we didn't let food spoil just a little bit,we'd have no sauerkraut,soy sauce,pickles,or prosciutto.Not to mention kefir,kimchi,kombucha,koumiss,katsuobushi,and plenty of other delicacies that don't start with K.

结果 世界各地的人们各有不同的观点 关于如何给食物“加菌”。不过 每种烹饪文化总会以某种方式利用“发酵”。如果我们不让食物“烂”一点点,就不会有酸菜 酱油 小咸菜或是熏肠。更别提可菲尔(牛奶发酵成的饮料)康普茶(酿造的东东)乳酒 木鱼(干燥,固化后的鲣鱼),以及其他不是K开头的佳肴了。

What's more,spoiled food may well have changed far more than our tastes.Historical evidence suggests that,when our ancestors gave up their wandering ways and settled down to grow grain,it was likely for love of either bread or beer.Whatever the case,one thing is clear:without the help of friendly fermenting microbes,we humans would be terribly uncultured.

另外 放烂食物带来的变化远不止味道。历史证据表明 我们的祖先放弃游牧 定居之后种谷物 很可能是出于对面包和啤酒的热爱。无论如何 有一点很清楚 没有了这些可爱发酵菌的帮助,人类兴许还停留在吃翔时代。
 

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