In the movie Self/Less,which hits theaters July 10th,Sir Ben Kingsley transfers his consciousness to Ryan Reynold's body in an effort to stay alive forever,and effectively become immortal in a process called'shedding'.
7月10日上映的电影《非我》 （又名换命法则）中，本.金斯利为了延续生命 将自己的意识转移到了瑞恩.雷诺兹的身体中，这个帮他延长寿命的过程叫“换命”。
Which sounds pretty awesome,I mean who wouldn't want more time to accomplish their dreams and goals in a younger body of your choice?Try being a professional athlete or solve the world's greatest problems.But is shedding actually plausible?Could you really be immortal in this way?
First,we need to understand how memories are stored.Your brain is a three-pound lump of fatty tissue that contains about 86 billion brain cells called neurons.By passing electricity or chemicals between them,neurons can send signals to each other.Most neuroscientists believe memory is stored as a network of neurons that form links with each other and all fire at the same time.
首先 我们得知道记忆的存储方式。大脑是一块重3磅的脂肪组织 其中含有约860亿名为神经元的脑细胞。通过传递电流和化学物质，神经元之间可以互相发送信号。神经系统学家大多认为记忆是以神经元网络的形式存储的 当神经元彼此连接并且同时活动时就形成了记忆。
Each time a memory is recalled,the same network of neurons fires together.In fact,scientists have shown that if you stimulate certain parts of the brain with electricity,you can cause an individual to recall certain memories-for example,the smell of burnt toast.So to download a memory,we could simply track which neurons are activated when you're thinking about it.
每次回忆时，同一个神经元网络就会同时发送信号 事实上 科学家已经证明了 如果用电刺激大脑的特定部位，就能让该个体回忆起特定的记忆 例如 面包烤焦的味道。因此 要下载记忆，我们只要在回忆时追踪正在活动的神经元即可。
And,as we explained in a previous video,scientists have already done this.By using computers to match these patterns of firing neurons with real images or scenes,we can already read people's minds to a limited degree.Many scientists believe it should one day be possible to create a kind of map of all the neurons in the brain and the connections between them:this map would be called a "connectome."
正如之前其他视频所介绍的 科学家们已经着手进行这项工作了。通过电脑模拟这些神经元活动的方式 生成真实的图像或感觉，我们已经能在一定程度上读出人的思想了。许多科学家都相信有朝一日我们可以 组建出大脑中所有神经元的地图 并能随意将它们连接在一起：这地图可以命名为“连接体”。
Both the United States and the European Union have launched major research programs with this goal specifically in mind,much like the organizations in Self/Less.This task will likely take decades,but once it's done,scientists should be able to build a computer model of the connectome,a kind of virtual brain that would be able to send signals between neurons through artificial synapses.
美国和欧联都已启动 有关这个目标的重要研究项目，就像《非我》里的研究组织一样。这个任务可能需要耗时数十年，一旦完成，科学家们就能建出连接体的电脑模型，一个能够通过人造突触 在神经元之间传递信号的虚拟大脑。
So if downloading memories is possible,what about uploading? That too is becoming a reality thanks to a technique called optogenetics.This involves injecting specific neurons with DNA from algae that causes them to produce a light-sensitive protein on their cell surface.When light is shone into the brain,it stimulates the protein and activates only those neurons that express it.
如果下载记忆是可能的 那么上传呢？由于一种名为光遗传学的技术 上传也可能实现。向特殊的神经元中注入 藻类的DNA 让它们可以 在细胞表面生成一种光敏蛋白质。当光照进大脑时，会刺激该蛋白质并且激活与之有关的那些神经元。
In this way,scientists can artificially activate groups of neurons assoc'''iated with particular memories.All this may sound pretty scary,and may make you think that a scenario like that found in Self/Less can't be far off.But there a few reasons to relax.Our brains are unbelievably complex,perhaps too complex to copy.The number of synapse connections is a thousand times bigger than the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
通过这种方式 科学家们可以人为激活 与特殊记忆有关的神经元。这听起来很可怕，甚至可能会让你认为《非我》中的那种情景很快就会成真。不过事情并没那么简单。我们的大脑超级复杂 复杂到很可能根本无法复制。突触间的连接方式 可能是银行系中星星数量的100多倍。
On top of that,your brain is constantly remodeling itself,creating new connections and letting old ones expire.It's a reflection of who you are at this specific moment in time,and it took your entire lifetime to create.A copy of your mind would be just an imitation.And the second it started integreating new thoughts,memories and experiences,it would become someone else.
Which in a way helps us appreciate how unique we truly are.But with increasingly sophisticated technology.who knows what the future may hold!Perhaps a world like Self/Less isn't too far away.