Charlie Rose采访杨澜英语视频双语字幕-名人访谈录(双语文本)

kira86 于2012-07-31发布 l 已有人浏览
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Charlie Rose采访阳光媒体集团的董事长,中国著名英语主持人杨澜,英语采访视频附双语文本,视频为双语字幕。

Host: Yang Lan is chairwoman of Sun Media Group, which has other businesses in media, online and more. I am very pleased to have her here at this table for the first time. Welcome.
Yang Lan: Thanks you, Charlie. Thank you for having me.
Host: Tell me how this started for you.
Yang Lan: It all started exactly 20 years ago, when I was graduating from college. At that time, the national television had its first open audition, for college graduates for its prime time variety show, called Zheng Da Variety Show. That was a show to introduce sightseeing around the world to the Chinese audience, who at that time, 99% of our population, didn't even have a passport. So it was a brand new exposure to the outside world, when China was opening up.
Host: Have you thought about that kind of career before that?
Yang Lan: No, not at all. My major in college was English literature and language in Beijing Foreign Studies University. When I was offered this opportunity, out of curiosity, I went, as well as another 1,000 girls. After rounds of auditions, I believe, it's after 7 rounds of auditions; I became the last one who survived it. So it gave me a really good start into broadcasting television. And the first show I hosted was a prime-time nation-wide show, which had an audience of 200 million every week. I did it for four years. That really gave me a pretty good start in the career.
主持人:这些数字让人惊叹。从美国电视的角度来说。中国的农业部长访问华盛顿的时候,我曾在这里采访他 当时肯尼迪中心正举办中国节,他们问我是否可以在中国播放这个节目。我在采访中说当然可以了。他们说,你会有机会被3亿观众看到,这个人数比我看到过的或一辈子在任何场合中遇到过的都要多。
Host: It's stunning to hear those numbers. From an American television perspective. I once did an interview with the Minister of Culture from China here. It was in Washington, where they had held a Chinese festival at the Kennedy Center. So they asked me: Could they re-broadcast it in China? I said of course at the interview. They said you probably would reach 300 million people, which was more people than I have ever seen or anything I have done in my entire life.
Yang Lan: But we have 1.3 billion.
Host: So then you began to…
Yang Lan: And then I quit my job to come to the States for a post-graduate study at Columbia University of New York, where I studied International Affairs. Upon graduation, I went back to Hong Kong to join Phoenix TV, the mandarin channel of Star TV Network. I started to produce my own show, Yan Lan 1-on-1, which was the first ever in-depth 1-on-1 interview show on Chinese television. I have been doing that, for, plus the days at Phoenix TV, 12 years. So over this time, I have interviewed more than 600 movers and shakers around the world. And many of them have been your guests too.
Host: Where did this entrepreneurial spirit that you have come from? The fact that you have not just had a career, but you also have engaged in creating businesses and enterprises along with your husband.
杨澜:嗯,那是10年前,2000年。我们一起创立了阳光媒体,在大中华地区的第一个卫星纪录片频道。因为那时候,我非常沉迷纪录片。我想这些能深度记录文化、历史和人文的片子会有持久的价值。但那一次尝试失败了。坚持了四年 原因是生意模式不可持续。因为我们设在香港,然而当时国内的落地证很少,所以频道没法拿到更多的广告费支持。
Yang Lan: Well, that was 10 years ago, the year of 2000. We co-founded Sun TV, which was the first satellite documentary channel for the greater China area. Because at that time, I was so obsessed with documentary. I think they have lasting values, give in-depth look into culture and history and people. But then that business had a flop. In four years' time, because the business model was not sustainable. The fact was we were positioned in Hong Kong, but then we had limited landing right into the mainland, which didn't give it enough advertising revenue basis.
Host: I think Rupert Murdoch at once was invested in the Phoenix Television, was he not?
Yang Lan: Yes, I think he is still part of the shareholders. So we sold the channel. We started to build multi-media integration into different aspects of the media. Television, website, and then big events, so on so forth.
Host: Is there a website now that reflects the broadest understanding of who you are, what you are about and might even carry a blog from you.
杨澜:我在中国几个领先的门户网站有博客,我也有微博。我们的天女网社区也有三、四百万粉丝。我们的网站以中文为主,名字叫 tiannv.com,也就是天女的拼音。目标受众是城市女性。
Yang Lan: I have a blog in several leading portals in China, and also tweeter. Our social community for Her Village (TianNv.com) for example is around 3 to 4 million followers. And our website is mostly in mandarin, It's called Tiannv.com, which is the Chinese spelling for Her Village. That's targeted at urban women.
Host: Where is, you think, this remarkable career headed?
Yang Lan: I don't know. I think there are so many exciting opportunities in China. The media is also opening up. So there are all sorts of things that you want to do. And if you don't have existing platforms to help to do that, you try to create something for yourself. I think that's where the entrepreneurship comes from. And for me, it's about… I think we have come into an age in which not a singular platform can complete the whole communication job. So it's more integrated. Media, communication, into your targeted audience For me, serving the urban women audience is one of my goals.
Host: Was there just a natural instinct for business that was there, dormant in China, waiting for it to open, waiting for their opportunity to create things?
Yang Lan: I believe so. It has been suppressed for decades. And suddenly when things open up, everyone wants to try his luck. So there is a lot of entrepreneurial spirits in the air, especially among young people, who want to try their luck. And above all, try to realize their dreams, their aspirations. So I think your imagination is your limit.
Host: Jack Ma was here the other day. Someone I am sure you must know. He has created an Amazon-like umpire. It's extraordinary.
Yang Lan: Yeah, it's the age for younger people to create their own empires. For me, it's not about building my own umpire. It's about something that I really enjoy doing and sometimes I think I am good at it.
Host: You obviously are good at it. So trying something new, not just asking the question why do you want to do it, but the question why not is my mentality. Talk to us about the cultural changes and the changes in fashion, in cinema, and the sense of life style in the urban areas.
杨澜:今后20年将可能见证中国从艺术到影视、到纪录片、到时尚、任何事物众多方面的复兴。但我们发现社会价值的重建问题,人们曾经也依稀看到过这样的意识形态。随后变成了物质主义。有个相亲节目,里面的男孩问女孩要不要坐在我自行车后座一起去玩,女孩说我宁愿坐在宝马车的后座上哭。这在社会上引起很大争议,反映了物质主义统治着年轻一代的价值观。然后社会上有很大的反响。我们到底怎么了?难道物质主义、物质上的成功是我们这代的唯一目标吗?我们在寻求的东西里有没有更有价值、更持久的东西?我想在今后 20 年,不仅是艺术、时尚和创造的复兴,还有我们价值观的重建。建设文明社会会是其中的一部分。上周我的基金会,阳光文化基金会,与比尔梅连达盖茨基金会合办了一场活动。
Yang Lan: The following two decade will possibly witness a renaissance of all kinds in China. From arts to cinema, to documentaries, to fashion, to whatever. But also we found it is a restoration of values into the society, where people got this illusion from certain ideology before. But then there was materialism. There was a dating show, In which when the boy asked the girl do you want to sit on the back seat of my bicycle and we both have fun, the girl said I would rather cry on the back seat of a BMW, which aroused huge controversy in the society, suggesting materialism is overruling the value system of the younger generation. But then there is a big outcry in the society saying that what's wrong with us? Is materialism, material success, the only goal for our generation? Is there something more valuable, more lasting that we are seeking? So I think for the next two decades, it's not just the renaissance of arts, of fashion, of creativity but also it's about the reinvention of our value system. And building up a civil society is a part of that. Last week my foundation, Sun Culture foundation, co-organized an event with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Host: Is it when Bill and Warren looking for...Chinese billionaires.
Yang Lan: It's not about giving pledge. It's about equal exchange of ideas of philanthropy. I also invited the Minister of Civil Affairs to be a partner, from which he also wrote a blog, saying that he got so much feedback from future philanthropists, saying that first of all we need legislation for philanthropy. Also we need capacity building for our NPO and NGOs.
主持人:新一代领导人,比如现在 30 岁 或者 40 岁 出头的骨干们,与他们的上一代有什么不同?
Host: Will the new generation of leadership, say, young man and women in their early 30s now and early 40s, how are they different from the generation that they will succeed?
Yang Lan: They have got very decent education, college education. For many of them. And they have the exposure through the internet and other media to the world. And many of them can afford international travels these days. So you see the booming of tourism, both at home and abroad. So this generation does not only think about themselves with the limitation of geographic boundaries but rather they can think across the borders. The entrepreneurs are investing in other countries. Younger people, they are seeking education here or in Europe, and elsewhere. So there is less limit in terms of what they can do, what they can achieve. Most of us know about Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong and a few other huge cities.
Host: Tell us the China beyond that.
杨澜:在中国,东部和西部的差距是很大的,主要城市与二线城市,三线城市的差距也很大。浩大的城市化进程正在发生。人们从边远地区流向城市,过去 20 年,超过 2 亿边远地区人口经历了城市化。今后 20 年,还有 3 亿人口会进入城市。
Yang Lan: In China, there is a huge disparity from East to West, from major cities to second-tier, third-tier cities. But there is a massive process of urbanization, which is taking place right now. People coming from the rural areas to the city. Over the past two decades, more than 200 million rural population has been urbanized. For the next two decades, another 300 million are coming into cities.
Host: What does that mean for China? They are coming in. Are they finding jobs? They are finding opportunities?
杨澜:他们找到工作,也找到机会,但公共政策也需要为他们和他们下一代的需求做出调整。例如,地区城市怎么提供医疗服务、教育和住房给这些民工等等。他们是否应该与城市人一样被平等看待?很多的实践在进行中。在中国 300多个城市的人口超过百万
Yang Lan: They are finding jobs. They are finding opportunities. But also public policy needs to be adjusted to suit the needs of them and their children. For example, how should the local cities provide medical services, education, housing to these migrant workers. Should they be treated equally as city residents? And so on so forth. So a lot of experiments are going on. In China, there are more than 300 cities with a population beyond 1 million.
Host: 300 cities with a population more than a million?
Yang Lan: If you visit second or third tier cities nowadays in China, massive construction, but also more sophisticated city planning. You see hundreds, thousands of new theaters being built, museums and parks and so on so forth. And the high-speed train will soon connect the whole country and raise it to another level of communication in transportation. So you will see the speeding up of communication and also the spread of information. I don't know what the country is heading for. But I think it is heading for a more open society. It's heading for the largest economy in the world for sure. I think it's also heading for a more open society. And also for young people, more opportunities.
Host: Why doesn’t that take place faster?
Yang Lan: Instability is a big issue, if you have 300 million people migrating. If you see it, you will be astonished. Every year during Chinese New Year, there will be 200 million coming back home to their rural residence. That is the migration of a huge population. Also there is a huge disparity of income between the urban and rural areas. Young college graduates would be overwhelmed by the rising real estate prices in major metropolitan cities. The commercial real estate is in some fear of a bubble taking place. Yes, so you have all sort of worries and concerns. I think keeping the society together is a huge challenge and task. Believe it or not, as a media professional, I think sometimes the speed is a little bit too fast. For example, the usage of the land. Probably we are overusing it. We have used the land reserve that should be used for the next generation. But we had developed so many things on a piece of ground. The architecture for example. There are some very bad pieces that will be taken apart sooner or later. What a waste of environment resources and money into it. So I think the society is opening up and keeps opening up.
Host: So what do you worry about your country?
杨澜:我担心该如何保持这样的发展速度?一方面要保持建设速度;一方面要保证年轻一代不会失去机会。最近我访谈了“蚁族”人士,那是用来描述新毕业的大学生的,以三千多元的月收入,就是工作 10 年甚至 20 年,他们也买不起房子。所以他们正失去希望,所以这个社会怎样才能始终给年轻一代创造成功的机会?难道只能保持原先的增长速度?房价必须稳定在大部分人可以承受的范围之内。
Yang Lan: Well, I worry about how do you keep pace with this development? With this construction. Without the younger generation losing opportunities. Nowadays, I did interviews with so called "tribe of ants", describing the new college graduates with an income of $500 a month, they cannot afford an apartment or a home within 10 years of or 20 years of employment. So they are losing their hope. So how can the society provide the young people with opportunity to succeed? Only if they maintain the growth rate they had? You have to maintain a reasonable real estate price for the majority of the population.
Host: And how do they do that?
Yang Lan: I really don't have a solution for that.
主持人:不过我想这是件我担心的事情。过去很长一段时间,年轻的中国学生去了美国或者英国的大学,他们中的很多留下来了,一些回到了中国。所以现在中国有不少 40 多岁, 50 多岁在国外受过教育的人被邀请回国,回国参与国家发展。吸引力来自于国家荣誉感。你在那些离开中国去了美国,英国或者其他地方比如俄国并决定回国参与中国正在发生的剧变的人们身上看到这点么?
Host: But I think that's a concern for me. For a long time, young Chinese had gone to American university, to British universities, many of them stayed or some of them come back. So you have people now in their 40s and 50s with graduate education outside of China. And they are being asked to come back. To come back and take part. The appeal is out of national pride. Do you see much of that in people who left China for United States, or England, or other places like Russia, who have decided to come back to participate in this extraordinary transformation that's taking place.
Yang Lan: I think national pride is one thing. Opportunity and a chance to realize your dream is another. I think it's a more decisive element.
Host: Opportunity is a more decisive element than pride.
Yang Lan: I think so, even for ordinary people. For example, an architect here can aspire to build one major building in Manhattan. But how many opportunities can be offered to him? In China, you have dozens or hundreds of cities designing their landmarks.
Host: Most great architects I know are working in China.
Yang Lan: It's a huge test land of all sorts of styles and creativity. Of course, young people like to go back, and to seek their success or have their name made. Also young business people, when they stayed here in the US, they see all sorts of services, which is still unavailable in China. They can go back home and start a training center, a school, a kindergarten. They can start anything, using the references that they learned here or in Europe, or anywhere else in the world. When back home, they can start something from scratch, and get successful in a few years' time I think that temptation is even greater than national pride. But of course, national pride is one element.
Host: How fast is the middle class rising?
Yang Lan: Because many look at it as an important element of China's growth to find markets internally and serve the markets externally. I think the middle class is growing very fast. I don't have a specific number that I can give you. It also depends on how would you define a middle-class person. A regular job? a home?
Host: How would you define middle class in China?
杨澜:嗯,我会说,租房住,买房住,有稳定的工作,事业发展有前景,有孩子,有车。这些是一些基本象征。就拿中国车辆销售的提升来说,这也是正在崛起的中产阶级的象征之一,去年中国卖出了 1 千万部新车,中国正成为所有行业数一数二的大市场。我想这是中国中产阶级正在崛起的一个象征。
Yang Lan: Well, I would say you know, a rented home, a board home. A regular job. A career in sight. Raising children, having a car. That can be some of the symbols. If you think of the rise of car sales in China, I think that would be one of the symbols of the rising middle class. Last year 10 million new cars were sold in China. It's becoming the first or the second largest market for everything. I think that could be one symbol of the rising of the middle class in China.
Host: When we look at the politics of China, the changes of China there are always the questions of freedom of expression. We all know about the Google controversy that took place. How would you characterize freedom of expression today in China?
Yang Lan: There are still regulations, censorship, frustrations. That's for sure. But I also see progress, especially through the introduction of internet. It has become a big public arena that more people will voice their opinions about public policies. Pros and cons. And there have been many cases when abuses of power were reported on the internet; huge public outcry will drive the government to be more spontaneous, to be more transparent, and also it directly led to the change of regulations or practices by the government. I think that's the progress we have made.
Host: And human rights?
Yang Lan: Well, taking the example of people in custody, or people in prison. There were cases reported through the internet. That they were mistreated. And then related personnels were published, investigations were initiated, and regulations have been reshaped. I think those are progresses that we can see. But of course, in such a vast country, you see a lot of issues, problems pumping out every day, in a lot of places. I think right now the major concern is the land usage. People worry about proper compensation for their land, which was taken away for urbanization or development. So what is proper compensation? Sometimes the government and residents may have different perspectives. That's what we see where a lot incidents come up.
Host: How do you see a lot of Chinese that you know, your friends and colleagues view the United States today?
Yang Lan: Wow, that's a big question. I think people look up to the US as it is a free and open society. It's leading in education, in culture, in world politics and so on so forth. But I think many Chinese disagree on some of the international policies that the US government holds. Especially on Iraq wars and so on so forth.
Host: But some agree on North Korea. US and China cooperate on some of …
Yang Lan: Yes, there is cooperation between US and China on a lot of fronts.
主持人:你怎样看中国,我知道你制作电视节目、开办企业和非政府报刊,但你怎样看中国在今后 25 年在世界上扮演的角色?
Host: How do you think China, I realize you do television programs and entrepreneur activities, and newspapers are not part of the government, how do you think China sees its role in the world over the next 25 years?
Yang Lan: Well, I think while China will take on more responsibilities in terms of free trade, in terms of the environmental protection, it's not for the sake of the outside world. It's for our own people. We can't live on a polluted piece of land with our health threatened. Also I think from an internal perspective, we see more problems than outsiders can see. We see hundreds of millions of workers, who are migrant works, whose jobs are at stake, if the foreign currencies change a little bit. Because the margin for the manufacturing industry is very low.
Host: You are suggesting that China's resistance to appreciate the currency was in part because it would affect the wages of the workers in China?
Yang Lan: Not just the wages, it's the security of jobs. It could affect millions or tens of millions of jobs. I am not arguing from the government point of view. I am just arguing as an insider, we see more internal challenges than outsiders can see.
Host: Americans make arguments the same way. In fact, you need to impose tariffs, because you need to protect the American workers.
Yang Lan: So I think it's a balance of both… How you protect jobs is an important problem for officials all over the world.
Host: So how do you most hope China will grow? What's your own great ambition for the place where you had grown up and you have played such an important, in the sense of culture and media, role reflecting its changes
Yang Lan: Well, for me, I think bridging China and the outside world is part of what I can do. Serving as the ambassador for Beijing Olympics and Shanghai Expo could be part of that. So that part includes explaining to the world what's going on inside China and what's going on outside China. It's interesting that my first show on television is about introducing the scenery, history, geography for my audience. Later on it's about people, personalities, insights, perspectives to my audience, which is more in-depth, I hope. That's something I take great pride in. Another thing I want to do is to help to enhance the growth of civil society in China. The NPO, NGOs…
Host: By that you mean creating institutions…
Yang Lan: Well, the NPOs, NGOs… My foundation has been working with the leading educational institutions like Harvard University, Columbia University, Peking University, Tsinghua University, to offer workshops for the training of the top executives of NPOs in China. So I think that capacity building for the civil society will mean a lot in the future for our society.
Host: Finally, what brings you to New York?
Yang Lan: Well, this time I was invited to attend a Fortune Magazine's most powerful women conference in Washington. And it's always sweet to come back to New York. I lived here for 3 years at Columbia. So visiting some of my old friends would mean a lot. And coming back to the city on a sunny day, have a feel for the central park and walk on Madison Avenue, 57th… Getting a feel of the city also means a lot of things to me. It's the city that I love, where I had my postgraduate study, I married, and my first child was born here in the city. So I have a personal and emotional attachment to the city itself.
Host: We are glad to see you.
Yang Lan: Thank you, Charlie.

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