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特朗普赴美签证禁令升级 哪些人将受影响?

kira86 于2020-06-24发布
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美国总统特朗普年内将暂停向某些类型的外国劳工发放移民签证。其目的是想挽回美国人的就业机会,以下签证类别将会受到影响。
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Who Is Affected by the US Visa Ban?

特朗普赴美签证禁令升级 哪些人将受影响?

U.S. President Donald Trump is suspending immigration visas for some kinds of foreign workers for the rest of the year.

美国总统特朗普年内将暂停向某些类型的外国劳工发放移民签证。

The suspension affects work visas that many technology and landscaping companies in the United States now use. The move also affects visas for exchange students and heads of multinational companies. It also affects visas for nonagricultural seasonal workers. But there are exceptions for workers in food processing, health care, childcare, and agriculture.

这次签证暂停办理会影响到美国许多科技和园林绿化公司目前正在使用的工作签证。此举还将会影响到交换生和跨国企业负责人的签证;还会影响非农业季节性劳工的签证。但是食品加工、卫生保健、育儿和农业领域的劳工例外。

The Trump administration said the decision to suspend some immigration visas was necessary to protect U.S. workers. More than 45 million workers have reported losing their jobs since the middle of March during the coronavirus pandemic. They have asked the government for assistance until they return to work. Many have since returned to their jobs as businesses reopen.

川普政府表示,为了保护美国工人,暂停一些移民签证的决定是必要的。自3月中旬发生冠状病毒大流行以来,已经有4500万工人报告失业。他们请求政府提供援助直到他们恢复就业。此后,随着企业复工,许多人已经重返工作岗位。

Business groups, however, strongly oppose the administration's decision. Technology companies and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce said banning foreign workers would hurt the country's economic recovery.

然而,商业机构强烈反对政府的这一决定。科技公司和美国商会表示,禁止外国劳工将会损害美国的经济复苏。

The effects of the ban may not be immediately felt. U.S. officials have approved few work visas because of travel restrictions during the pandemic.

禁令的影响可能不会立即显现。因为大流行期间的旅行限制,美国官员很少批准工作签证。

The following visa categories are affected:

以下签证类别将会受到影响:

H-1B

H-1B签证

The U.S. government approves 85,000 H-1B visas every year to "high-skilled" workers, often in the technology industry. These visas are generally good for up to six years.

美国政府每年向高技能工人发放8.5万张H-1B签证,这些人通常都来自科技行业。这些签证的有效期一般为6年。

In the U.S. government's 2019 spending year, the Department of State approved over 188,000 H-1B visas. Some 131,000 were for Indian citizens, followed by 28,000 for citizens of mainland China.

在美国政府2019财年中,国务院批准了超过18.8万张H-1B签证。其中13.1万人是印度公民,其次是2.8万中国大陆公民。

Only 143 H-1B visas were approved in May 2020, compared with over 13,600 one year earlier.

2020年5月只发放了143张H-1B签证,而去年五月发放了13600张。

H-2B

H-2B签证

H-2B visas are for seasonal non-agricultural labor. The U.S. government usually approves 66,000 such visas every year, but the numbers could be higher, based on demand.

H-2B签证适用于季节性非农业劳工。美国政府通常每年发放6.6万张此类签证,但是根据需要,这一数字可能会更高。

H-2B visas are good for up to three years. They are popular in industries like food processing, hotel work, and landscaping. In the 2019 fiscal year, the State Department approved more than 97,000 H-2B visas, with over 72,000 going to Mexican citizens.

H-2B签证的有效期最长为3年。这一签证在食品加工、酒店工作和园林绿化行业很流行。在2019财年,美国国务院批准了9.7万多张H-2B签证,其中超过7.2万张发给了墨西哥公民。

H-4

H-4签证

H-4 visas are for husbands, wives, and children of H-1B and H-2B holders. The Trump administration's declaration does not talk about H-4 visas but does restrict entry for "any alien accompanying or following to join" restricted categories.

H-4签证适用于H-1B和H2B签证持有者的配偶和子女。川普政府的声明中没有提到H-4签证,但是确实限制了“任何陪伴或随行者”限制类别的入境。

An H-4 visa is good for the same length of time as the H-1B visa. In the 2019 fiscal year, the State Department approved nearly 126,000 H-4 visas. Over 106,000 were for citizens of India.

H-4签证有效期跟H-1B签证相同。在2019财年,美国国务院发放了近12.6万张H-4签证。超过10.6万张发给了印度公民。

J-1

J-1签证

J-1 visas are for cultural and educational exchange. The order affects J-1 holders "participating in an intern, trainee, teacher, camp counselor, au pair, or summer work travel program."

J-1签证用于文化和教育交流。该(签证暂停)命令影响到了“参与实习生、培训生、教师、营队辅导员、互惠生或暑期工作旅游项目”的J1签证持有者。

The visas are good for up to seven years. In the 2019 fiscal year, the State Department approved over 353,000 J-1 visas. Nearly 40,000 were for citizens of mainland China, followed by 18,000 for citizens of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

这种签证的有效期长达7年。2019财年,美国国务院批准了超过35.3万张J-1签证。其中近4万张发给了中国公民,其次有1.8万张发给了英国和北爱尔兰公民。

J-2

J-2签证

J-2 visas are for the husbands, wives, and dependents of J-1 holders. A J-2 visa is good for the same period of time as the J-1 visa. The State Department approved 38,000 J-2 visas in the 2019 fiscal year, with 10,000 going to mainland Chinese citizens.

J-2签证适用于J-1签证持有者的配偶和家属。J-2签证有效期跟J-1签证有效期相同。美国国务院在2019财年批准了3.8万张J-2签证,其中1万张发给了中国大陆公民。

L-1

L-1签证

L-1 visas are for high-level and specialized company employees. They are generally good for up to seven years. In the 2019 fiscal year, the State Department approved nearly 77,000 L-1 visas. The largest number -- some 18,000 -- were for citizens of India.

L-1签证适用于公司高层次人才和专业化员工。它的有效期通常为7年。2019财年,美国国务院发放了近7.7万张L-1签证。其中最高的1.8万张发给是印度公民。

L-2

L-2签证

Finally, L-2 visas are for the dependents of L-1 visa holders. An L-2 visa is good for the same length of time as the L-1 visa. In the 2019 fiscal year, the State Department approved about 81,000 L-2 visas. The largest number -- some 23,000 -- went to Indian citizens.

最后,L-2 签证适用于L-1签证持有者的家属。L-2签证有效期与L-1签证相同。2019财年,美国国务院发放了大约8.1万张L-2签证。其中最高的2.3万张发给了是印度公民。

I'm Jonathan Evans.

乔纳森·埃文斯为你播报。

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