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Joseph Juran (1904-2008): 现代代质量管理的领军人物

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Joseph Juran, 1904-2008: A Life of Quality Control 迅雷专用高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Economics
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Joseph Juran, 1904-2008: A Life of Quality Control


迅雷专用高速下载

This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.

Recently the business world lost a leader in quality control. Joseph Juran died at the age of one hundred and three. He developed ideas that are still important today to improving the quality of products.

Joseph Juran was born in Braila, Romania. His family came to the United States in nineteen twelve when he was eight. They settled in Minneapolis, Minnesota(n.明尼苏达州(美国州名)).

He studied electrical engineering at the University of Minnesota. He was also the school champion at the game of chess. After college, the Western Electric Company put him to work on mathematical methods of quality control.

He became interested in the idea he termed "vital few and trivial many." This idea is popularly known as the "eighty-twenty rule." It could mean, for example, that eighty percent of manufacturing problems result from twenty percent of the causes.

He named it the "Pareto principle," for the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto. A century ago, Pareto observed that eighty percent of the wealth in Italy went to twenty percent of the population.

But Joseph Juran came to recognize that he had misnamed this principle. He knew that unequal distribution had long been observed in other areas, not just wealth.

Yet he gave Pareto credit for identifying it as "universal" when, it seemed, he could have taken the credit himself.  He could have called it, he said, the Juran principle.

In nineteen fifty-one, he published his "Quality Control Handbook." This influential book especially interested the Japanese. He was invited to teach in Japan, and he advised some of its largest companies. The Japanese also had help from another American, William Edwards Deming. The two experts helped Japan became a world leader in quality control.

In nineteen sixty-four Joseph Juran published "Managerial Breakthrough." This book formed the basis of several other strategies to reduce manufacturing mistakes and cut waste. Among them are the methods known as Six Sigma and lean management.

In nineteen seventy-nine, Joseph Juran established the Juran Institute in Connecticut. It works with organizations that want to improve quality. But the main purpose of the institute, he said, is to improve society.

Joseph Juran died on February twenty-eighth in Rye, New York. That was where he lived with Sadie Juran, his wife of eighty-one years.

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter.  I'm Steve Ember.

Joseph Juran, 1904-2008: 补充资料

历史地位:影响美国历史的新移民

  朱兰传授的质量改进法是通过逐个项目,有针对性解决问题和团队合作的方式进行的,是高层管理所必备的。他坚信质量不是偶然产生的,它的产生必定是有策划的,并断言质量改进是用逐个项目的方法进行。

闪光智慧:质量三步曲

  朱兰的《质量策划》(Planning for Quality) 一书中可能是对他的思想和整个公司质量策划的构成方法明确的向导。朱兰的质量策划是公司内部实现质量管理方法三步曲中的第一步。除此还有质量控制,它评估质量绩效用已经制定的目标比较绩效,并弥合实际绩效和设定目标之间的差距。朱兰将第三步质量改进作为持续发展的过程,这一过程包括建立形成质量改进循环的必要组织基础设施。他建议使用团队合作和逐个项目运作的方式来努力保持持续改进和突破改进两种形式。

  他对实行组织内部质量策划的主要观点包括:识别客户和客户需求;制定最佳质量目标;建立质量衡量方式;设计策划在运作条件下满足质量目标的过程;持续增加市场份额;优化价格,降低公司或工厂中的错误率。

  朱兰大部分近期著作主要是引起人们对质量危机的关注,建立起新方法进行质量策划,培训以及帮助企业重新策划现有过程,避免质量缺陷,并建立公司在质量策划过程中的管理权以免出现新的长期问题。在第 5 版的《朱兰质量手册》中,“大Q”与“小q”概念在对比图表中列出。“小q” 将质量视为技术范畴,而“大Q” 将质量与商业范畴联系在一起。

  朱兰认为大部分质量问题是管理层的错误而并非工作层的技巧问题。总的来说,他认为管理层控制的缺陷占所有质量问题的 80% 还要多。

  他首创将人力与质量管理结合起来,如今,这一观点已包含于全面质量管理的概念之中。朱兰观念的发展过程是逐步进行的。最高管理层的参与,质量知识的普及培训,质量实用性的定义,质量改进逐个项目的运作方法,“重要的少数”与“有用的多数”及“三步曲”(质量策划、质量控制、质量改进) 之间的区别——朱兰就是以这些观点而闻名的。

  至理名言: 质量是一种合用性,即产品在使用期间能满足使用者的要求。
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