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“新生代”农民工的不满,或引起连锁反应或社会动荡

kira86 于2010-06-18发布 l 已有人浏览
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Young Workers Lead Growing Labor Unrest in China高速下载 Factory labor built China into the world's third la
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Young Workers Lead Growing Labor Unrest in China

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Factory labor built China into the world's third largest economy, after the United States and Japan. Now something else is building: labor tensions.

China bars labor unions independent of the Communist Party. But George Haley at the University of New Haven in Connecticut says labor unrest is common.

GEORGE HALEY: "This really isn't new. There has been a tremendous amount of agitation among workers for higher pay for years."

Disputes are especially common in the Pearl River manufacturing area in southeastern China. Companies there have resisted raising wages.

For years, millions of Chinese from inland provinces have flooded into eastern industrial centers. But young workers are increasingly dissatisfied with the pay and working conditions.

Inflation hurts, too. China's export-driven economy has been recovering from the worldwide downturn. The growth rate in the first three months of this year was nearly twelve percent. But China could raise interest rates to control growth and inflation. Prices roses in May at the highest rate in a year and a half.

Migrants also face added costs for services that were free in the past, like medical care and education.

The government does not report on migrant unemployment. But media reports say an estimated twenty million migrant workers returned home last year after losing their jobs.

Labor unrest in China takes different forms. Recent strikes against foreign companies have included suppliers for Japanese car makers Honda and Toyota.

In Shenzhen, at least ten employees at factories owned by Taiwan's Foxconn have killed themselves since January. They complained of long hours and low pay. Foxconn makes Apple iPhones and iPads and electronics for other companies. Foxconn has agreed to double basic pay to nearly three hundred dollars a month.

Foreign-owned companies generally offer the best conditions. But China business expert George Haley says cost pressures are high.

GEORGE HALEY: "So when foreign companies start negotiating with local Chinese suppliers, they really press hard on the prices offered by those Chinese suppliers."

Professor Haley says profit for the average Chinese company is less than five percent. The government has tried to get foreign companies to move factories inland, where pay remains low.

Some young workers in the south have organized protests using the Internet and mobile phones. What remains unclear is how far this can go before the government reacts to it as a threat.

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

相关阅读:

“中国的低工资时代宣告落幕。”(《纽约时报》)

“从纽约到东京,企业经营者此前担心的时刻已经到来。”(彭博社)

受中国企业掀起的涨薪潮和罢工潮的影响,全球经济开始动荡不安。因为,中国工人的多米诺式涨薪热潮将改变中国的经济环境,对韩国经济以及全球经济也产生不小的影响。

在过去30多年里,中国一直凭借“低工资”优势发挥着“世界工厂”的作用,而现在出现的涨薪潮可以被视为中国经济向大型消费市场蜕变的信号弹。另外,由此引发的产品价格上涨现象会使全球经济面临通货膨胀(物价上涨)的压力,而且,中国国内一直以低工资为生存之本的韩国加工出口企业可能会遭受重创。但同时也有人提出乐观主张称,如果中国工人收入增加,中国内需市场就会随之扩大,这样就会给韩国消费品出口企业带来利好因素。

◆中国低工资时代宣告落幕

最近,中国的涨薪潮简直是呈燎原之势。因工人陆续自杀而成为焦点的富士康公司在不到一个月的时间里三次涨薪。日本第二大汽车制造商本田汽车的中国工厂也因要求涨薪的工人罢工而头疼不已。进军中国的韩国企业也不例外。向现代汽车提供零配件的北京星宇车科技有限公司也发生了罢工事件,最终劳资双方就涨薪15% 的方案达成协议。

进入今年以后,中国地方政府制定的最低工资标准都大幅上调。深圳从7月份开始将基本工资从1000元人民币上调至1200元,湖北省也从5月份开始将基本工资上调了近30%.

据分析,中国工人要求涨薪和罢工的根本原因是“用工荒”。中国在30多年前推行的“一对夫妻一个孩”的生育计划使中国的人口结构发生变化,20至39岁人口大幅减少,从而导致劳动力锐减。中国政府的态度也助长了涨薪潮。为了缓解可能升级为社会问题的贫富差距问题并使经济模式从低价出口为主转向内需为主,中国政府实际上对涨薪热潮持默许态度。

◆中国涨薪热潮的“蝴蝶效应”

中国出现涨薪潮可能会带动从T恤、运动鞋到计算机服务器、智能手机等各种商品价格的上涨,从而引发全球通货膨胀现象。瑞士信贷集团(CS)的中国首席经济学家董涛指出:“(中国的低工资)在20年里遏制了全球企业成本和物价的上涨,是全球通货紧缩(物价下跌)的主犯。但最近陆续出现了涨薪潮,这是宣告上述时代终结的信号。”

另外,部分经济专家提出了中国经济增长趋缓的可能性,他们指出,中国经济正在走向“刘易斯转折点(Lewis Turning Point)”。“刘易斯转折点”是指在经济增长过程中,随着农村廉价劳动力逐渐减少而出现的工资、消费、物价全面上涨、经济增长势头趋缓的现象。

彭博社预测称:“由于工资大幅上涨,中国最重要的出口产业将会走下坡路。如果中国国内工厂转移到印度尼西亚、越南和中亚地区,将对中国经济的增长产生致命影响。

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