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双向双语项目:用英语(大语种)和非英语(小语种)教学

kira86 于2010-06-17发布 l 已有人浏览
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English and Spanish Speakers Learn Together, and From Each Other高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Educa
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English and Spanish Speakers Learn Together, and From Each Other


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This is the VOA Special English Education Report.

In the last ten years, hundreds of American schools have begun to offer a new way to teach foreign languages. This method is called dual or two-way immersion.

Here is how it works at London Towne Elementary School in Centreville, Virginia, outside Washington. In some classes, only Spanish is spoken, even during the Pledge of Allegiance -- a morning tradition for American schoolchildren.

(SOUND)

And this is a second grade class where the children learn math and other subjects completely in Spanish.

(SOUND)

Later in the day they learn only in English. Half of the children are from families that speak Spanish at home. The other half are native English speakers. Myra Olmeda is the teacher.

MYRA OLMEDA: "When these both groups [come] together, they're learning, you know, one from the other -- which is the greatest thing that is happening."

Helen Arzola teaches the youngest children.

HELEN ARZOLA: "A child before eight is a language learning machine. That's their reason for being, for the most part. So this is the time to learn a language."

She says her kindergarteners from English-speaking families may have never heard Spanish before. And she says children from Spanish-speaking families benefit from learning in their own language.

HELEN ARZOLA: "The goal of the dual-language program is to teach low-income Hispanic children English -- good English, social English and academic English. And that can only happen if they have a good, solid foundation in their first language."

But some people are still not sure about these programs. They say bilingual education has not always taught Hispanic students enough English. K.C. McAlpin is executive director of a national nonprofit group called Pro-English.

K.C. MCALPIN: "The experience of history has made us a bit skeptical, OK? Because it's another thing that sounds like on the surface is a great idea."

London Towne Elementary is in Fairfax County, Virginia. The county also offer immersion programs in French, German and Japanese.

One sixth grader at London Towne says it's not like traditional teaching.

DANIEL SHANK-ROWE: "It's really just like being in the environment where everyone's talking Spanish. You just catch on."

Another student says she likes to learn other languages. But a national survey found that in recent years foreign language teaching decreased in public elementary and middle schools. Fewer schools teach French, German, Russian or Japanese.

Some schools say a federal education law from the last administration has hurt language teaching. This law only requires testing of progress in math and reading. Schools also face language teacher shortages, and now budget cuts caused by the economy.

And that's the VOA Special English Education Report. You can watch a video of this report by Jerome Socolovsky at en8848.com. I'm Steve Ember.

双向渗透项目(Two-way immersion:TWI) 也叫双向双语项目(Two-way bilingual programs)或发展双语项目(Developmental bilingual programs), 其特点是,将非母语英语学生和母语英语学生混合在一起,用英语(大语种)和非英语(小语种)教学,促进非母语英语学生的英语和本族语的发展,使他们向主流学校和社区环境转变。最理想的做法是,保持小语种和大语种学生的平衡,各占50%,教学通过大语种和小语种进行。在一些项目中,两种语言隔日轮流使用。还有一些项目,两种语言可能分别在上下午轮流使用,或者根据不同的学习课程分别使用。英语为本族语的学习者和其他语言的学习者都有机会在继续发展他们本族语技能的同时获得第二语言水平的提高。双向双语班可能由一个熟练掌握两种语言的教师上课,或者由两个教师上课,其中一人是讲双语的。

美国第一个双向渗透项目始于1963年,此后的20年时间里,双向渗透项目增长缓慢,1981年之前运作的项目不到10个。现有的双向渗透项目中的大多数是过去20年里确立的,自1991年以来,“应用语言中心”一直负责监管双向渗透项目的进展。2000年,应用语言中心公布了“美国双向渗透项目名录”(Directory of Two-Way Immersion Programs in the United States),共收入23个州的249个双向渗透项目。收入名录的项目必须符合三个标准:各年级的非母语英语学生和母语英语学生一天当中至少有一半时间是混合在一起的;所有学生的课程教学是通过双语传授的;非母语英语学生和母语英语学生保持平衡,每组占学生总数的1/3至2/3。这249个双向渗透项目中的大部分是西班牙语/英语,占234个,其他为:5个汉语/英语项目,5个法语/英语项目,3个朝鲜语/英语项目,2个印第安那伐鹤语/英语项目。根据2002年“美国双向渗透项目名录”的统计,双向渗透项目达到了266个。

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