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美国穆斯林学校蓬勃兴旺

kira86 于2010-08-07发布 l 已有人浏览
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Muslim College Opens in US With Hopes and Suspicions高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Education Report
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Muslim College Opens in US With Hopes and Suspicions


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 This is the VOA Special English Education Report.

Zaytuna College is a new four-year college in Berkeley, California. Zaytuna is seeking to become the first accredited Muslim college in the United States. The name comes from the Arabic word for olives.

The process of full accreditation could take several years. That will make it easier for students to get financial aid, and to have their education recognized by employers and other schools.

Zaytuna held its first classes this summer -- intensive study of Arabic to prepare for classes in the fall.

Zaytuna currently offers two majors, a choice of Islamic law and religion or Arabic language. General education classes include American history, anthropology, philosophy, literature and political science.

Imam Zaid Shakir is a professor and co-founder of Zaytuna. He was born in Berkeley. The college website says he accepted Islam in nineteen seventy-seven while serving in the United States Air Force.

Imam Shakir says he wants teachers who are trained and educated in the United States and who understand American society.

ZAID SHAKIR: "And who also are comfortable with their Americanness on the one hand and comfortable with Islam on the other hand."

There are millions of American Muslims. But the imam says most of the teachers of Islam in America received their training in other countries. He says Islam has never become rooted in any land until that land had its own Islamic scholars.

Michael Higgins studies the relationship between religion and higher education. The United States has many different religious colleges. But he says he fears there could be protests if Zaytuna College is seen as teaching students not to accept other religions.

MICHAEL HIGGINS: "I think there will be a lot of fear or apprehension around the establishment of a college that adheres to Islam. If it becomes a madrasa or a college of inculcation only, that could be hugely problematic."

This September eleventh will be nine years since the al-Qaida terrorist attacks on the United States. Imam Shakir recognizes that those attacks and other plots since then have fed public suspicions about Islam.

But he says opponents of the college represent a minority opinion in the United States. He says they are reacting to a small group of extremists -- a "lunatic fringe" -- in the Islamic community.

ZAID SHAKIR: "And I think this is why Zaytuna College is so important. If we prove ourselves, even those more vocal critics will be silenced. It's up to us; the ball is in our court."

And that's the VOA Special English Education Report, with reporting by Lonny Shavelson. I'm Steve Ember.

相关报道:
 
   随着美国穆斯林人口不断增加,美国各地为穆斯林家庭服务的穆斯林学校也越来越多。美国穆斯林把这类学校看作是一种途径,让他们的子女能够得到良好的主流教育和学习伊斯兰的基本教义。但批评者担心,这类学校中,有些会让穆斯林儿童受到激进的伊斯兰教观点的影响。
  
  美国的穆斯林社区一贯非常重视教育。和许多其他家庭一样,穆斯林父母在子女的教育方面,也有一些选择。他们可以把孩子送到由县政府管理的公立学校,或者私立学校,然后在家里或周末提供宗教课程。
  
  另外一项选择是,他们可以把孩子送到私立宗教学校。乔治敦大学伊斯兰历史教授伊冯娜·哈达德说,伊斯兰学校和美国许多其它私立学校或教会学校的作用一样:
  
  “北美洲100多所伊斯兰学校,都依照各州的教学大纲授课。在社会科学、历史、地理、数学和科学方面,教学内容绝对没有任何差异。唯一不同的是,他们每天有一节课学习伊斯兰教义。”
  
  哈达德教授说,2001年9月11日伊斯兰恐怖分子在美国发动攻击之后,美国人开始质疑,美国的伊斯兰学校会不会成为培养美国本土恐怖份子、威胁美国安全的温床?
  
  民众的这种担心对穆斯林父母提出了新的挑战,他们的孩子开始在公立学校里受到歧视,而新闻媒体也经常把伊斯兰学校和极端主义意识形态连在一起。
  
  哈达德教授说:“有些穆斯林父母让孩子从伊斯兰学校退出,转入公立学校。因为他们担心孩子继续留在伊斯兰学校会受到影响。但也有一些穆斯林父母把子女由公立学校转入伊斯兰学校,目的是保护孩子。”
  
  哈达德教授是《教育美国穆斯林》一书的共同作者。她承认,民众越来越关注孩子们在伊斯兰学校到底学些什么。
  
  经营“中东论坛”和“校园观察”等网站的保守派中东历史学家丹尼尔·派普斯说,美国有几所私立伊斯兰学校给学生开设含有极端主义内容的课程:
  
  “这不难理解。这些学校的教师和教科书都公开反西方、反基督教、反犹太,鼓吹伊斯兰至上。把伊斯兰说成世界上唯一的宗教,这就引导出显然很有问题的观点,并在某些情况下,导致恐怖主义。人们都知道,沙特伊斯兰学院的一名最优秀的学生,因为试图刺杀布什总统而在狱中服刑。”
  
  派普斯说,许多伊斯兰学校正在散布极端主义理念,对学生灌输不健康的观念,让学生以为他们生活中唯一重要的东西是自己的伊斯兰身份。
  
  但是,密西根州迪尔本市的美国穆斯林青年学院院长艾伯特·哈布不同意这种看法。他说:“我们依照密西根州的教学大纲。此外,我们有一部分伊斯兰教学内容,我们教导伊斯兰教义,并把阿拉伯文作为外语课程。我们要确保让我们的年轻人培养伊斯兰品德,并且向美国社会展现伊斯兰教积极的东西。”
  
  美国穆斯林创立和支持伊斯兰学校,就和当年美国的天主教和犹太社区一样。美国的天主教和犹太社区最早筹建自己的宗教学校时,也曾面临民众的反对。专家认为,美国穆斯林在为子女寻求最好的教育之际,也应该加倍努力,让美国民众了解伊斯兰教,以及他们如何把信仰传给下一代。

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