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开始学习前做这3件事 能提高记忆力和学习效率

kira86 于2020-06-11发布
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在开始学习前,做这三件事可以提高你的记忆力和学习效率——运动、选择学习地点和学前测试。
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Things to Do Before You Study

在学习之前做这几件事: 提高学习效率, 事半功倍!

Many students think about how to best spend their time while studying. But what comes before study sessions can be important too - especially if you want to improve your memory of what you have learned.

许多学生都考虑过如何在学习时最好地利用他们的时间。但在学习过程开始之前做什么也很重要——尤其是你想更快记住你所学知识的话。

In today's Education Tips, we will explore different ways that you can improve your memory and learning. We will examine some useful, no-cost things you can do before you study.

在今天的教育小贴士中,我们将探索不同的方法来提高你的记忆力和学习效率。我们会探究一些有用的、免费的方法,你可以在你正式学习之前这么做。

Three important ideas to think about before studying include exercise, study location and pre-study tests. Let’s look at each of these in turn.

在学习前要考虑三件重要的事情:运动、学习地点和学前测试。让我们依次看看这些事项。

Exercise

运动

Before you study, doing cardiovascular exercise may help you better remember what you learn. High-intensity exercise may be especially helpful.

在你学习之前,做有氧运动可以帮助你更好地记住你所要学的东西。高强度的运动也可能特别有用。

In a 2018 study, published in the journal Physiology and Behavior, researchers found that a group of young people who did 15 minutes of high-intensity training on a treadmill remembered more words.

在2018年发表在《生理学与行为》杂志上的一项研究中,研究人员发现,一组在跑步机上进行了15分钟高强度训练的年轻人记住的单词更多。

Some studies have also shown high-intensity exercise to help improve the memories of older people.

一些研究也表明,高强度运动有助于改善老年人的记忆力。

Other studies suggest the importance of different kinds of exercise. It seems that both long, slow cardiovascular exercise and high-intensity exercise have different effects on memory. Researchers have suggested combining the two to get the best effects for your memory.

其他研究表明了不同类型的运动的重要性。长时间、慢速的有氧运动和高强度的运动对记忆力的影响似乎是不同的。研究人员建议将两者结合起来,以获得最佳的记忆效果。

The important idea is this: exercise is good for your memory. Even if you cannot exercise right before a study session, it is still probably a good idea to be active in general.

重要的是:运动对你的记忆力有好处。即使你不能在学习前进行锻炼,一般来说,保持积极锻炼仍不失为一个好主意。

Location

学习地点

Location is also important for improving your learning. While it is good to have a desk or a special study area, some research suggests that changing where you study could help you remember more of what you study.

地点对于促进你的学习也很重要。虽然拥有一张书桌或一个专门的学习区域是很好的,但一些研究表明,改变学习地点可以帮助你记住更多所学内容。

Our memories sometimes depend on things in our environment. For example, a book might remind you of something interesting or strange you learned while reading it.

我们的记忆有时取决于我们周围的事物。例如,一本书可能会让你想起读这本书时遇到的有趣或奇怪的事情。

“Environmental Context and Human Memory,” a famous study on memory, dealt with the question of memory and our surroundings. Researchers Smith, Glenberg and Bjork found that environmental context played a big part in how well people remembered words. The researchers noted that subjects who learned from a list remembered an average of 15.9 words, while subjects who learned in two different contexts remembered an average of 24.4 words.

“环境情境与人类记忆”是一项关于记忆的著名研究,涉及的是记忆和我们周围环境之间的关系。研究人员史密斯、格伦伯格和比约克发现,环境语境对人们记忆单词的牢固程度起着很大的作用。研究人员指出,从一张列表中学习的受试者平均记住15.9个单词,而在两种不同情境中学习的受试者平均记住24.4个单词。

Be sure to plan your location before you start to study. You might want to try studying in different places. Perhaps one day you could study in your room, and then the next day you could study in the kitchen, or outside. You do not have to change locations every day, but try to at least sometimes.

在你开始学习之前一定要计划好你的学习地点。你可以尝试在不同的地方学习。也许某天你可以在房间里学习,然后第二天就可以在厨房或外面学习。你不必每天都换地方,但至少有时要试着换。

Pre-study test

学前测试

We have talked about exercise and location. Now let’s talk about a third way you can improve your study session: taking a pre-study test.

我们已经讨论过运动和学习地点。现在让我们来谈谈第三种提高学习进度的方法:参加学前测试。

Students often study with a test in mind. They consider the test the final step to show how much they have learned.

学生们经常带着考试的目的在学习。他们认为考试是展示他们学到了多少东西的最后一步。

But, students need to test themselves often. Testing is one of the best ways to make yourself remember new information.

但是,学生们需要经常测试自己。测试是让自己记住新信息的最好方法之一。

In 2018, researchers found that students who took a test before learning new material did much better after studying the material. The research was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology.

2018年,研究人员发现,在学习新材料之前参加测试的学生在学习新材料后表现更好。这项研究发表在《实验心理学杂志》上。

The students failed on the tests, but they were better able to remember the material than students who were only asked to read the information.

这些学生们虽然在学前测试中表现不佳,但他们比那些只被要求阅读信息的学生更能记住材料。

“The testing effect appears to be attributable, in part, to the role unsuccessful tests play in enhancing future learning,” the researchers wrote.

研究人员写道:“这种测试效果在一定程度上可以归因于测试成绩不理想在促进未来学习方面所起的作用。”

So, try to take a pre-study test. If you are using a textbook, you might want to look to the end of the chapter and do a few practice questions before you read it.

所以,试着做一个学前测试。如果你正在用一本教材,你可以在阅读正文之前先看一看这一章的结尾并做一些练习题。

You could look at some important words at the end of a chapter of an English book, for example. And you could ask yourself what they mean, or how they are used. While you might not know the answer, you will probably be better able to learn and remember the answer when you study it!

例如,你可以在一本英语书的一章末尾看到一些重要的单词。你可以问问自己它们是什么意思,或者它们该怎么用。虽然你可能不知道答案,但当你正式开始学习时,可能会更好地学习和记住答案!

Closing thoughts

结论

In today’s report, we have explored three things you can do to improve your learning. Try them out and let us know about your results.

在今天的报道中,我们探讨了三件可以做来促进学习的事情。试一试,并告诉我们效果如何。

In future education tips stories, we will explore things you can do during and after your study sessions to improve your learning.

在未来的教育小贴士故事中,我们将探索可以在学习期间和之后做些什么来提高你的学习效率。

I’m John Russell.

约翰·罗赛尔为您播报。

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