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两件看似与学习无关的事 却直接影响着学习效率

kira86 于2020-07-21发布
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这两件事看似与学习无关,却能影响学习和记忆效果。看看你做到了吗?
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Things to Do After You Study

学习后要做的事

Many students study with little thought about what comes after their study session.

很多学生都不会思考学习后要做什么。

But what you do after studying could have an effect on how well you learn and remember new information.

但是学习后要做的事可能会影响学习和记忆新知识的效果。

Today on Education Tips, we will explore two no-cost ways that can help you improve your learning: wakeful rest and sleep.

在今天的教育小贴士中,我们将探索两种免费的方法来帮助你提高你的学习:清醒状态下的休息和睡眠。

Wakeful rest

清醒状态下的休息

When many students finish studying, they often go straight to another activity. Perhaps they look at their phone or computer. They might even play a video game or watch television.

许多学生学习完之后经常直接进行下一项活动。他们或玩手机或看电脑,甚至可能玩电子游戏或看电视。

But research suggests that resting after you study may help you remember what you studied.

然而,研究表明,学习后进行休息可能有助于记忆所学的内容。

The basic idea is this: by reducing your activity after the study session, your brain gets a chance to rest. Resting is difficult when you have too much stimulation from electronic devices, games, lights and so on.

基本理念在于:通过减少学习后的活动,大脑有机会得到休息。一旦受到电子设备,游戏以及电灯等的过度刺激,想要休息就困难了。

While this might sound unusual to you, many studies have explored the benefits of resting after learning – what is called “wakeful rest.”

这听起来可能不太寻常,但很多研究已经探索了学习后休息的好处——也就是所谓的“清醒休息”。

A study published in the Journal PLOS One examined how well older people who were in good health could remember certain words. In two different experiments, researchers found that older adults who rested for 10 minutes after learning new words had better memory of those words. “A period of wakeful rest immediately after new learning boosts free recall of verbal material,” the researchers wrote.

发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》杂志上的一项研究调查了健康的老年人对某些单词的记忆力。在两个不同的实验中,研究人员发现,学习新单词后休息10分钟的老年人记忆单词的效果更好。研究人员写道:“在学习新知识后立即进行一段清醒的休息可以促进对语言材料的自由记忆。”

The results were strong even after seven days, they added.

他们补充说,即使在七天之后,效果仍然很明显。

A 2019 study found that both young and older adults were able to better remember, or recollect, information from prose passages after doing wakeful rest. The findings appeared in Neuroscience Letters.

2019年的一项研究发现,年轻人和老年人在清醒休息后都能更好地记住或回忆文章中的信息。这项研究结果发表在《神经科学快报》上。

This study involved 45 younger people and 40 elderly adults.

这项研究涉及45名年轻人和40名老年人。

“Wakeful resting led to higher overall recollection in both age groups,” the researchers noted.

研究人员指出:“在两个年龄组中,清醒状态下的休息能提高整体记忆力。”

If you want to give “wakeful rest” a try, here are a few simple things to do. Rest quietly for five to ten minutes. Do not look at your phone, read stories or play games. Just limit the amount of stimulation you get. It is really that easy!

如果你想试试“清醒状态下的休息”,只需以下简单几步。安静地休息五至十分钟。不要看手机,读故事或玩游戏。只要限制不要受过度刺激就行了。真的就那么简单!

Sleep

睡眠

In addition to wakeful rest, sleep is also important for learning.

除了清醒状态下的休息以外,睡眠对学习也很重要。

The Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School notes that sleep helps people to learn in two ways. A report on the school’s website explains that “a sleep-deprived person cannot focus attention optimally and therefore cannot learn efficiently.” It also says, “sleep itself has a role in the consolidation of memory, which is essential for learning new information.”

哈佛医学院睡眠医学部指出,睡眠可以从两方面帮助人们学习。该校网站上的一份报告解释说,“睡眠不足的人无法最佳地集中注意力,因此无法有效地学习。”它还指出,“睡眠本身在巩固记忆方面也有作用,这对学习新信息是至关重要的。”

Robert Stickgold is a doctor and sleep expert at Harvard Medical School. Speaking with the U.S. National Institutes of Health, or NIH, he noted that new memories can be hard to keep. “When we first form memories, they’re in a very raw and fragile form,” he said.

罗伯特·斯蒂克戈尔德是哈佛医学院的医生和睡眠专家。他在与美国国立卫生研究院的谈话中指出,新的记忆可能很难保持。“当我们最初形成记忆时,它们是非常原始和脆弱的,”他说。

Sleep is important for forming memories. Stickgold told the NIH “you get very little benefit from cutting corners.”

睡眠对记忆的形成很重要。斯蒂克戈尔德告诉美国国立卫生研究院:“走捷径几乎没有什么好处。”

The National Sleep Foundation suggests that adults between the ages of 18 and 64 get between 7 and 9 hours of sleep per day. Teenagers may need slightly more, and people over the age of 65 may need a little less.

国家睡眠基金会建议18到64岁的成年人每天要睡7到9个小时。青少年可能需要再多一点,而65岁以上的人可能需要少一点。

Closing thoughts

结论

Now you have two suggestions for how to learn new information.

现在我们已经掌握了两条对学习新知识的建议。

Try to get some “wakeful rest” after a study session. Then try to get a good night’s sleep.

学习后试试“清醒状态下的休息”,然后试着睡个好觉。

That’s it – a simple, no-cost way to help you remember what you learn.

就这么多——一种简单不费钱的帮助记忆学习内容的方法。

You can include the ideas we discussed today with ideas we explored in other Education Tips stories. On those programs, we discussed what you can do before and during a study session to improve your learning.

你可以把我们今天讨论的想法和我们在其他教育技巧故事中探索的想法结合起来。在那些节目中,我们讨论了在学习之前和学习期间你可以做些什么来提高你的学习。

I’m John Russell.

我是约翰·拉塞尔。

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