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Alison Des Forges埃里森.德.弗基斯,一位种族灭绝见证者

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A Voice for the Victims: Alison Des Forges and the Genocide in Rwanda迅雷专用 This is the VOA Special English
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A Voice for the Victims: Alison Des Forges and the Genocide in Rwanda


迅雷专用

This is the VOA Special English Development Report.

Alison Des Forges was an American-born human rights expert and historian. She was one of fifty people killed in a plane crash on February twelfth near her hometown of Buffalo, New York. She was sixty-six years old.

For almost twenty years, until her death, Alison Des Forges was senior adviser to the Africa division of Human Rights Watch. In nineteen ninety-four, she did her best to warn the world that Rwanda was sliding into genocide.

She was in the United States when the killing began. But she was able to persuade diplomats to move some people out of the most threatened area.

She spent the next four years documenting the events and the world's failure the intervene. She wrote a book, published in nineteen ninety-nine, called "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda."

Members of the ethnic Hutu majority killed Tutsis and moderate Hutus. By some estimates, around eight hundred thousand people were killed; Alison Des Forges felt more sure saying at least half a million. She talked with people on both sides: those who organized the killings and those who were targets.

She had a doctorate in history which she received from Yale in nineteen seventy-two. She wrote her dissertation paper on Rwanda. Almost thirty years later, she received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work on the genocide that took place there.

It began in April of nineteen ninety-four after a plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, was shot down. The killings ended three months later after Tutsi rebels fighting a civil war defeated the Hutu government.

Alison Des Forges demanded justice for the genocide victims. She appeared repeatedly as an expert witness at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. But she also called attention to thousands of killings by the rebels in reaction to the genocide.

She became unpopular with the former rebels who now lead the government. Late last year, she was banned from the country she loved after Human Rights Watch criticized Rwanda's legal system.

Most recently, she worked on a report about killings in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

Alison Des Forges often worked with members of the International Crisis Group. The group which works to prevent conflicts remembers her as someone who always spoke for the victims.

And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. I'm Steve Ember.

埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯一生见证了两次空难。第一次是在15年前,一架载着两位非洲总统的豪华喷气式飞机在卢旺达上空被导弹击落。第二次就在上周,一架拥挤的短途班机在冰冷的天气中于纽约州布法罗附近坠落,50人遇难。前者成为历史上最迅速的种族灭绝的一个借口,而后者却令它最坚韧的目击者,一位瘦小的,满头银发的美国女士陷入了沉默。

1994年4月6日,埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯正待在布法罗的家中。就在那天,布法罗午餐时间,卢旺达和布隆迪总统于当地时间上午8.20被刺杀。二十分钟后,一位朋友从卢旺达首都基加利给埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯打来电话。她的一位人权观察员同仁,莫妮卡 穆加瓦玛瑞亚说:“到此为止了,我们完了。”

埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯于是每过半小时就给她打电话,直到入夜。她听她不断地描述着令人惊恐的场面:民兵挨家挨户地将人们赶出来屠杀他们。最后,民兵来到穆加瓦玛瑞亚女士的家门前。德 ·弗基斯夫人让她把电话递给那些杀人魔,并说自己可以装作是从白宫打来电话,从而警告他们离开。“不用了,这样不会有用的,”穆加瓦玛瑞亚说。接着她又说道:“请照顾好我的孩子。我不想让你听到这个。”于是她挂断了电话。

从那刻起,德 ·弗基斯夫人便不停地努力以唤起人们对这次事件的关注。她熟谙卢旺达动乱的历史,并在1972年以此为主题完成了她的博士论文。当时她就已经比多数人更敏锐地感觉到,二十年后的罪恶正在酝酿之中。她在卢旺达待了数年,调查针对人权观察组织的政治暴力活动。她知道1993年由胡图掌控的政府和图西领导的反抗组织——卢旺达爱国阵线所签订的和平协议根本就是废纸一张,胡图军事领导正在密谋一次大清洗,以避免权利共享。她早就知道可拍的事情正在酝酿之中。

声嘶力竭,无人理会

埃里森· 德· 弗基斯不停地电话,发传真,近于疯狂地收集信息。到4月17日,她确信全面的种族灭绝已在进行之中。第一批局外人下此断言,而她是其中之一。但真正能左右事态的人却对她熟视无睹。国务院的非洲专家听她讲述现况时,同她一起流泪。可谁又会去听非洲专家的呢?联合国高级官员关心的主要是疏散外籍人员。比尔·克林顿总统则急于避免重蹈索马里覆辙(就在之前一年,18个美国士兵在索马里执行人道救援任务时牺牲了)。德· 弗基斯夫人甚至未能说服五角大楼设法干扰协助此次屠杀的无线电广播。五角大楼的理由是这样做费用太高了。

此次种族大屠杀以卢旺达爱国阵线反抗者颠覆胡图政府夺取权力才得以告终。在接下来的四年里,德· 弗基斯夫人带领一支研究一组,挖掘其中的事实。在此基础上写了一份权威性的报告:近800页以脚注形式呈现的详细审慎的可怕事件。未来的历史学家将用得上这份报告。她的证词将几个罪犯送进了监狱。她还让关于种族灭绝是古代部落仇恨的自发式爆发(很多人当时对此持有异议)这一言论无可争辩。她看到了种种计划,也看到了50万砍刀的订单。

在某些方面,埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯显得“过时”。当其他人权活动家为越来越长的社会经济“权利”(资助房屋,公平贸易等等)目录感到烦恼时,德· 弗基斯夫人坚持最基本的权利,比如不被杀戮的权利。她冒着巨大的风险,冲到屠杀的现场质问刀刃上血迹未干的侩子手。她没有遗漏任何恐怖的细节:妻子们在被强暴之前被迫埋葬她们的丈夫;婴儿被活生生地扔进茅厕。

她实事求是。有人猜测这次屠杀的受害者达80万人,甚至1百万。而埃里森· 德 ·弗基斯坚称是50万,因为这是她所能证实的。又有人以为如果说实行种族灭绝的胡图政权是一群坏蛋,那么推翻他们的图西反抗者必定是好人。德 ·弗基斯夫人却说:别这么快下结论,虽然只有一方对种族灭绝负有责任,但两方都犯了战争罪。她认为卢旺达爱国阵线可能在1994年屠杀了25,000人。

德 ·弗基斯夫人的正直使她并不受到仍然统治卢旺达的卢旺达爱国阵线政权的欢迎。去年,在她写了一篇公允但带有批判的关于卢旺达司法体系的报告后,她被禁止踏足这个国家。在她临死之前,她挺身为一位被放逐的学者大声疾呼,她认为这位学者被不公正地指控参与了那次种族屠杀。

是什么驱使着她?一个故事向我们揭露了原委。1993年,布隆迪,卢旺达的邻国,有成千上万的人被屠杀,而西方媒体几乎没有注意到。卢旺达的胡图官员则声称他们可能会做同样的事情,而没有任何人会在乎。德 ·弗基斯想把这些暴行毫厘不差地记录下来,长期执着地发表出来,这样人们就会在乎了。她将书——在一个侩子手叫嚣后——命名为《无人讲述的故事》。她知道讲故事会有用的。

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