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手术可治妇科瘘?了解妇女卫生保健中的悲剧性盲点

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高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Development Report.A medical aid program in Kenya offers hope to wome
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This is the VOA Special English Development Report.

A medical aid program in Kenya offers hope to women and girls suffering from a condition known as fistula.

About two million women and girls worldwide have the condition. There are about one thousand new cases of fistula each year in Kenya and as many as one hundred thousand worldwide. Most cases of fistula are in Africa and Asia.

Last month, the African Medical and Research Foundation held a medical camp in Kenya to provide free operations to those with the condition.

A fistula is a hole that develops between two organs. Obstetric fistulas are caused by obstructed childbirth. When a baby's head is stuck in the birth canal for an extended period of time, it cuts off the blood supply to the woman's surrounding organs. This causes the tissues to die.

The woman is left with a hole between her vagina and her bladder or rectum. This causes her to continuously leak urine or feces. It may also prevent her from having other children, or having sexual relations.

If left untreated, fistula can cause other health problems. These include skin infections, kidney disorders and even death. Many women suffer intense shame and social rejection because of their condition.

Rose Opiyo developed fistula during childbirth twenty-three years ago.

ROSE OPIYO (TRANSLATED): "I had many problems. I could not go to my farm or conduct my business. There was nothing I could do. When you have this kind of a problem, you can only take care of your body. There is nothing else you can do. People hated me."

Many fistula sufferers are rejected and abandoned by their family and friends. Mrs. Opiyo's husband left her.

ROSE OPIYO (TRANSLATED): "He hated me because of the problem that I had. He eventually left me and married another woman."

Mrs. Opiyo was among the women who visited the free medical camp in Kenya to have operations to correct their condition. The World Health Organization says the simple operation can cure up to ninety percent of fistulas.

The organization also says fistula can largely be prevented. It advises girls to delay their first pregnancy until their bodies have fully developed. This reduces the risk of long and obstructed childbirth.

The organization also calls for an increase in quality health care and an end to harmful traditional practices like female genital cutting.

And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by June Simms. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our reports are at en8848.com. I'm Steve Ember.

什么是妇科瘘,妇科瘘有多恐怖?妇女卫生保健中的悲剧性盲点

  一个不为很多人知晓的防止破坏性的分娩损伤的运动每年可以使数以万计的妇女免于由妇科瘘引起的使人丧失能力的健康问题和社会上的排斥。

故事

  “得了妇科瘘还不如瞎了”,一个年轻妇女说,“至少有人帮助你”。妇科瘘在西方世界不为多数人所知,是一个完全可以预防的医学和社会悲剧。它由分娩时的并发症引起,如果没有紧急产科医护,会造成长期、慢性的不能自理,并导致肾病甚至死亡。腿部神经损伤使有些妇女无法行走。百分之九十五的病例中婴儿死亡。如果不治疗,工作和家庭生活的前景非常黯淡。患妇科瘘的妇女被社会排斥,被家庭抛弃。很多人成为乞丐,最终因传染不治而死去。

  世界卫生组织估计,发展中国家大约有二百万妇女患有妇科瘘,每年又有5万到10万新病例产生。努力让世界对妇科瘘的各个层面引起注意的医生们说,如果年轻女孩结婚得晚一点,怀孕期间有充分的医护,并发症出现时接受紧急产科救护,那么妇科瘘是可以预防的。然而,在发展中国家,只有百分之五十八的妇女生产时得到专业助产士或医生的帮助,只有百分之四十在医院或卫生中心生产。

  “妇科瘘是双重的悲痛因为妇女失去婴儿也失去尊严,”联合国人口基金执行主任苏拉亚·阿麦德·奥贝德说,“联合国人口基金希望,消灭妇科瘘全球运动将最终使妇科瘘在非洲和亚洲像在世界其它地区那样罕见”。

背景

    * 住在偏远农村、很少接受医疗的妇女有风险。
    * 两年前联合国人口基金及其全球伙伴发起的消灭妇科瘘全球运动只能够向多在撒哈拉以南的非洲的约30个国家提供部分的支持。
    * 恢复一位患妇科瘘妇女的健康和尊严只需300美元,但这远远超出年收入远低于此的国家的人的能力。
    * 2005年2 月,全球运动和尼日利亚政府在两星期内支持了545个妇女的恢复手术。尼日利亚可能有多达80万个患妇科瘘的妇女。
    * 妇科瘘修复的成功率高达90%。
    * 如果目前发展中国家计划生育服务的要求得到满足,母亲的死亡和伤害可以减少20%或更多。
    * 通过改进的产科护理,妇科瘘在欧洲和北美已经被消除。

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