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听故事学4000英语词汇113:恐龙是怎么死的

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听英语故事,学记英语单词。4000英语实用词汇,尽在每个故事中。
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4000 Essential English Words 4 Paul Nation

4000英语核心词汇4 保罗·纳森

Unit 23 Word List

第23单元 单词表

accurate adj.

精确的

If something is accurate, it is completely correct.

表示完全正确的。

→ The story in the newspaper wasn't very accurate.

报纸上的报道不太准确。

analyze v.

分析

To analyze something is to study it.

表示研究。

→ The scientist will analyze the blood sample.

科学家将分析血样。

asteroid n.

小行星

An asteroid is a giant rock from outer space.

来自外太空的巨大岩石。

→ In 1908, a giant asteroid hit Siberia.

1908年,一颗巨大的小行星掉落在西伯利亚。

controversy n.

争论

A controversy is a dispute about something that affects many people.

关于影响很多人的事情的争论。

→ There has been a lot of controversy over the judge's decision.

对于法官的决定有很多争议。

evolve v.

进化

To evolve is to change over time.

指随着时间推移而变化。

→ Many people think that humans evolved from animals.

许多人认为人类是由动物进化而来的。

factor n.

因素

A factor is something that has an effect on the way another thing happens.

指另一件事发生的导因。

→ Smoking is the main factor that causes lung cancer.

吸烟是导致肺癌的主要原因。

genetic adj.

遗传的

If something is genetic, it is related to the genes in one's body.

指与人体内的基因有关的。

→ The color of one's eyes is genetic.

眼睛的颜色是遗传的。

genome n.

基因组

A genome is the collection of all the genes in a living thing.

指生物体所有基因的组合。

→ Understanding the human genome may help cure many diseases.

了解人类基因组可能有助于治疗许多疾病。

identical adj.

相同的

To be identical is to be the same as someone or something else.

意为与某人或某事相同。

→ James and John are identical twins.

詹姆斯和约翰是同卵双胞胎。

intellectual n.

知识分子

An intellectual is a very smart person.

指很有学识的人。

→ We've always considered my Uncle Max the intellectual of the family.

我们一直认为我叔叔马克斯是家里的知识分子。

majority n.

大多数

A majority of something is almost all of the people or things in that group.

指的是群体中几乎所有的人或事物。

→ A majority of the people voted for Tom Smith in the election.

在选举中大多数人把票投给了汤姆·史密斯。

mammal n.

哺乳动物

A mammal is an animal that usually has hair and is not born from an egg.

指通常有毛发且不是蛋孵的动物。

→ Even though it lives in the water, whales are actually mammals.

虽然鲸鱼生活在水中,但它实际上是哺乳动物。

multiply v.

To multiply is to increase in number.

指使数字增加。

→ In the past year, the number of people at work multiplied by ten percent.

在过去的一年里,工作的人数增加了10%。

offspring n.

后代

Offspring are the children of a person or the babies of an animal.

指人或动物的后代。

→ The dog's offspring had the same color of fur as she did.

这只狗的后代和她的皮毛颜色一样。

pesticide n.

杀虫剂

A pesticide is a substance used to kill insects.

指用于杀虫的物质。

→ The farmer sprayed his crops with a pesticide to keep bugs away.

农民用杀虫剂喷洒庄稼以驱除虫子。

regulate v.

控制

To regulate something is to control how it happens.

值控制事情发生的方式。

→ The bank regulates how much money people can borrow from it.

银行规定贷款的额度。

reinforce v.

加强

To reinforce something is to make it stronger.

表示使更加坚固。

→ Peter reinforced his opinion with information from a book.

彼得从一本书中得到的信息增强了他的观点。

stricken adj.

受挫折的

If one is stricken by a disease or problem, they are badly affected by it.

指深受疾病或问题困扰的。

→ Mike was stricken with a horrible illness.

迈克得了一场重病。

vast adj.

广阔的

If something is vast, it is very large.

表示非常巨大的。

→ The wealthy man bought a vast amount of land in the countryside.

那个富人在乡下买了一大片土地。

vegetarian n.

素食主义者

A vegetarian is someone who does not eat any meat products.

指不吃任何肉食的人。

→ I became a vegetarian because I don't like the taste of meat.

我成为素食主义者是因为我不喜欢肉的味道。

How the Dinosaurs Really Died

恐龙是怎么死的

Many scientists and intellectuals think that dinosaurs died when an asteroid smashed into the Earth millions of years ago. However, recently, there has been some controversy over this theory. Some scientists think that it isn't accurate. They think that a tiny insect may have been the biggest factor in the death of these huge creatures. That insect was the mosquito.

许多科学家和知识分子认为恐龙是在数百万年前一颗小行星撞击地球时死亡的。然而,最近,关于这一理论有一些争议。一些科学家认为这是不准确的。他们认为一种微小的昆虫可能是这些大型生物死亡的最大因素。而那种昆虫就是蚊子。

These scientists do think that an asteroid hit the Earth the time of the dinosaurs. But that wasn't what killed all of them. At that time, insects, including the mosquito, were beginning to evolve. Today, we can regulate the number of mosquitoes with pesticides. But that was impossible millions of years ago. The mosquitoes multiplied quickly. And they were certainly not idle. Since there were so many mosquitoes, it was easy for them to bite many of the dinosaurs. When they bit another living thing, the mosquitoes passed along a deadly disease. So the dinosaurs were stricken with the disease. A vast majority of them, from the vegetarians to the meat eaters, died.

这些科学家确实认为在恐龙时代有一颗小行星撞击地球,但那并不是恐龙灭绝的原因。那时,包括蚊子在内的昆虫开始进化。今天,我们可以用杀虫剂控制蚊子的数量。但这在数百万年前是不可能的。蚊子繁殖很快。他们当然不是无所事事。因为有这么多的蚊子,它们很容易咬到很多恐龙。当蚊子叮咬其他生物时,就会传播一种致命的疾病,所以导致恐龙也染上了这种疾病。所以,他们中的绝大多数,从素食者到肉食者,都死了。

To reinforce this idea, scientists stress how gradually the dinosaurs died. If an asteroid killed them, they would have died very quickly. But the number of dinosaurs decreased slowly. In addition, scientists have found genetic material of mosquitoes in fossils. This material proves that mosquitoes existed back then. Although there may have been other factors, the dinosaurs died mainly because of disease, the scientists say.

为了增强这一观点,科学家们强调恐龙是如何逐渐死亡的。如果它们死于行星撞击地球,应该会很快死去。但是恐龙灭绝的速度却很慢。此外,科学家还在化石中发现了蚊子的遗传物质。这些材料证明蚊子在那个时候就存在。科学家表示,尽管可能有其他因素,恐龙的死亡主要是因为疾病。

No matter how it happened, the dinosaurs' death had a major impact on other living things. Many dinosaurs ate mammals. After the dinosaurs died, mammals were able to evolve and produce offspring. Birds also evolved. Scientists have analyzed the genomes of birds, and they discovered that birds have identical genetic material to some dinosaurs. So there may still be dinosaurs among us after all.

无论如何,恐龙的灭绝对其他生物产生了重大影响。许多恐龙都以哺乳动物为食,它们灭绝之后,哺乳动物得以进化并繁衍后代。鸟类也进化了。科学家分析了鸟类的基因组,发现其遗传物质与一些恐龙相同。所以恐龙可能仍然还是存在的。

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