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听故事学4000英语词汇118:修西得底斯和雅典瘟疫

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4000 Essential English Words 4 Paul Nation

4000英语核心词汇4 保罗·纳森

Unit 28 Word List

第28单元 单词表

avail n.

效用

Avail is help. It is often used in the achievement of a goal.

指帮助,通常用于指实现目标。

→ His studying was to no avail because he failed the test.

他的学习毫无用处,因为他考试不及格。

expand v.

扩张

To expand is to become bigger in size.

在规模上变得更大。

→ A balloon will expand as you blow air into it.

当你往气球里吹气时,它就会膨胀。

define v.

使明确

To define means to clearly state, show, or explain what something is.

清楚地陈述、展示或解释某物是什么。

→ People define success in many different ways.

人们对成功有许多不同的定义。

dread v.

惧怕

To dread is to be afraid of something that could, or is going to, happen.

害怕可能发生或将要发生的事情。

→ I dread the idea that I will not get into college.

我害怕我上不了大学。

fundamental adj.

基本的

If something is fundamental, it is a basic part of something.

某物的基本部分。

→ The fundamental rules of basketball are easy.

篮球的基本规则很简单。

horrifying adj.

令人极其震惊的

If something is horrifying, it is frightening and very unpleasant.

可怕的和非常不愉快的。

→ There was a horrifying car accident today.

今天发生了一起可怕的车祸。

incredulous adj.

怀疑的

If someone is incredulous about something, they do not believe that it is true.

指不相信某事是真的。

→ She was incredulous that monkeys could ever drive a car.

她不相信猴子会开车。

linger v.

徘徊

To linger is to last for a long time.

表示长时间持续。

→ The smell of fresh cookies lingered in the bakery.

新鲜饼干的香味在面包店里久久不散。

organism n.

有机体

An organism is a living thing, especially a very small one.

有生命的东西,尤其指很小的生物。

→ We studied the organism on the microscope.

我们用显微镜研究这种有机体。

paraphrase v.

释义

To paraphrase is to make someone else's writing or speech shorter.

将别人的文章或演说归纳。

→ The students were asked to paraphrase the story they just heard.

学生们被要求复述他们刚刚听到的故事。

plague n.

瘟疫

A plague is a serious disease that quickly spreads to many people.

一种严重的疾病,会迅速传播给许多人。

→ A plague in Europe killed millions of people.

欧洲的一场瘟疫夺去了数百万人的生命。

presently adv.

目前

If something happens presently, it is happening right now.

指发生在当下的。

→ Presently, our profits are good, but by next year we can do even better.

目前,我们的利润很好,但到明年我们可以做得更好。

random adj.

随机的

If something is random, it happens without any pattern or reason.

没有任何模式或理由的。

→ Young children often ask random questions.

小孩子经常随便问问题。

riot n.

暴乱

A riot is a crowd that reacts to bad news by violently breaking laws.

一群对坏消息做出暴力违法反应的人。

→ A riot broke out after the candidate lost the election.

候选人竞选失败后发生了骚乱。

scribble v.

乱写

To scribble is to write something quickly without caring about how it looks.

指写东西很快而不关心看起来怎么样。

→ I scribbled a rough diagram of our plan and gave it to him.

我草草画了一张我们的计划草图给他。

shrine n.

神殿

A shrine is a religious building built to honor a person, event, or god.

为纪念一个人、事件或上帝而建造的宗教建筑。

→ He prayed at the shrine for an hour.

他在神龛里祈祷了一个小时。

Solitude n.

隐居

Solitude is the state of being totally alone.

完全孤独的状态。

→ John lives a life of solitude because he doesn't get along well with people.

约翰过着孤独的生活,因为他与人相处不好。

stark adj.

完全的

If a contrast is stark, then the things being compared are utterly different.

指完全不同的。

→ There is a stark contrast between their test scores.

他们的考试成绩截然不同。

summon v.

召唤

To summon a person is to ask them to come to you.

指让人来找自己。

→ We summoned the doctor as soon as we noticed she was sick.

我们一发现她病了就去请医生。

worsen v.

恶化

To worsen is to get worse.

指变得更糟糕。

→ The weather suddenly worsened, and we had to stay inside.

天气突然变坏了,我们不得不呆在室内。

Thucydides and the Plague of Athens

修西得底斯和雅典瘟疫

Thucydides was the world's first historian. Presently, we get most of our knowledge about ancient Greece from his writing. But Thucydides didn't just write about history, he lived through it. However, he almost didn't survive one historical event: the Plague of Athens.

修西得底斯是世界上第一位历史学家。目前,我们对古希腊的大部分知识都是从他的著作中获得的。但是修昔底德不仅仅写历史,他还经历了历史。然而,他差点丧命于一件历史事件:雅典瘟疫。

In 430 BCE, an army attacked the city of Athens, where Thucydides lived. Thousands of people hid from the army behind Athens' large walls. The city became very crowded as the population expanded. Then a horrifying disease broke out. People summoned doctors. But it was to no avail because no one understood how the disease spread. It seemed random. They didn't know that it was an organism. Instead, they defined disease as a punishment from their gods. Thucydides was incredulous that gods caused the plague, but he explained why others believed it. There was an old, long verse which predicted the disease. To paraphrase it, the verse said the gods would send a disease during a war. As a result, large crowds gathered at shrines to ask the gods to stop the plague. But the situation only worsened because these people were so close to each other they became sick. That's how they learned a fundamental lesson about the plague: it spread from person to person.

公元前430年,一支军队袭击了修西得底斯居住的雅典城。成千上万的人躲在雅典的高墙后面躲避军队。随着人口的增长,城市变得非常拥挤。然后一种可怕的疾病爆发了。人们请来医生,但也没有用,因为没有人知道这种疾病是如何传播开来的。这种病似乎是随机传播的,他们不知道这是一种病毒。相反,他们把疾病定义为来自神的惩罚。修西得底斯不相信是神引起了瘟疫,但他也说明了其他人相信这一说法的原因。有一首古老的长诗预言了这种疾病。诗中说神会在战争期间传播疾病。因此,很多人聚集在神殿里,祈求神灵阻止瘟疫。但情况却越变越糟,因为这些人彼此靠得太近,大家都被传染了。他们也从中了解到了瘟疫的基本知识:它会在人与人之间传播。

People wanted to leave the crowded city, but they dreaded what the army outside would do to them. At this time, Thucydides got sick, too. He quickly scribbled down notes because he thought he would soon die. His writing shows a stark contrast between people's behavior before and during the plague. There were riots, and people ignored laws. They didn't think they'd live long enough to be punished. Many sick people were left to die in solitude because no one wanted to be near them. The plague lingered for two years. But luckily, Thucydides survived. Without his writing, we would know much less about ancient Greece and the Plague of Athens.

人们想离开这座拥挤的城市,但又害怕外面的军队。这时,修西得底斯也病了。他很快地写下笔记,因为他认为自己很快就会死去。他记录了瘟疫前和瘟疫期间人们行为的鲜明对比。城里发生了骚乱,人们无视法律,因为他们认为自己活不到接受惩罚的时候。许多病人孤独地死去,因为没有人愿意靠近他们。瘟疫持续了两年。但幸运的是,修西得底斯活了下来。如果没有他的记录,我们就不会知道这么多关于古希腊和雅典瘟疫的事情。

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