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听故事学4000英语词汇156: 神奇的科莫多龙

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听英语故事,学记英语单词。4000英语实用词汇,尽在每个故事中。
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4000 Essential English Words 6 Paul Nation

4000英语核心词汇6 保罗·纳森

Unit 6 Word List

第6单元 单词表

ashore adv.

在岸上

If something goes ashore, it goes from water to the land.

指从水中到陆地上的。

→ After a long day of fishing, Glen pulled his boat ashore, so it wouldn't float away.

捕了一天的鱼,格伦将船靠岸,以免它漂走了。

contradict v.

反驳

To contradict means to state the opposite of what someone else has.

指与别人所持观点相反的。

→ Ken was always fighting with his little sister because she kept contradicting him.

肯总是和他的小妹妹吵架,因为她总是反驳他。

counterpart n.

副本

A counterpart is something that is very similar to something else in what it does.

指与原件非常相似的东西。

→ Our manager will meet our rival company's counterpart later today.

我们的经理今天晚些时候将会见对手公司的经理。

devoid adj.

缺乏的

When something or someone is devoid of a thing, they are missing it.

指失去某人某物。

→ The movie was devoid of any violence, so it was a perfect movie for the family.

这部电影没有任何暴力,所以对这个家庭来说是一部完美的电影。

diverge v.

使偏

To diverge is to become different or to follow a different direction.

变得不同或遵循不同的方向。

→ The road diverged into two paths that led to our houses.

这条路分岔成两条路,都通往我们家。

elude v.

避开

To elude means to avoid being caught by something.

避免被什么东西抓住。

→ The rabbit eluded the wolf by hiding in a bush.

兔子躲在灌木丛里躲避狼。

embryo n.

胚胎

An embryo is a human or animal that is still growing inside its mother.

仍在母体内生长的人或动物。

→ Some doctors say that what a mother eats has a big effect on her embryo.

一些医生说,母亲的饮食对胚胎有很大的影响。

fend v.

照料

To fend off something means to push it away and avoid it.

意思是把某物推开,避开它。

→ Dave spent all night fending off bugs instead of sleeping.

戴夫整晚都在躲避虫子,没有睡觉。

fictitious adj.

虚构的

When something is fictitious, it is made up and not real.

虚构的,不是真实的。

→ The author said that the characters in her book were completely fictitious.

作者说她书中的人物完全是虚构的。

gazette n.

公报

A gazette is a newspaper.

一种报纸。

→ Alice wants to write for a gazette when she's older.

艾丽丝想长大后为《公报》写稿。

homogeneous adj.

均匀的

If something is homogeneous, it is made up of things which are all the same.

由所有相同的东西组成的。

→ All of the houses on Victor's block were boring and homogenous.

维克多住的街区里所有的房子都很单调乏味。

obstruct v.

妨碍

To obstruct something means to get in its way.

意为阻碍某事。

→ The car broke down on the road and obstructed traffic for hours.

汽车在路上抛锚,使交通阻塞了好几个小时。

plunge v.

猛插

To plunge means to move down into something very quickly.

指一下子进入某物。

→ The water in the pool was very cold, but the boy plunged in anyway.

池里的水很冷,但男孩还是跳进了水里。

prolong v.

延长

To prolong means to make something last for a longer time.

意为使某物持续更长的时间。

→ Sandy walked slowly across the beach, trying to prolong her lunch break.

桑迪慢慢地走过海滩,试图延长她的午休时间。

publicize v.

宣传

To publicize is to make something get a lot of attention.

让某件事得到很多关注。

→ The company publicized the job positions in the newspaper.

公司在报纸上刊登了招聘广告。

sparse adj.

稀疏的

If something is sparse, there is not very much of it in a big area.

指在某个大区域内很少的。

→ Rob spent Saturday in his garden, clearing out the sparse weeds.

罗布星期六花在他的花园里,清除稀疏的杂草。

surplus n.

剩余

A surplus is an extra amount of something.

某物的额外数量。

→ The store sold their surplus items on sale.

这家商店把他们多余的物品廉价出售。

theorize v.

建立理论

To theorize means to develop ideas about something.

指对某事发展出一些想法。

→ They enjoyed theorizing about how things worked.

他们喜欢用理论来解释事物的运作方式。

verify v.

核实

To verify means to find out if something is true.

意为查明某事是否属实

→ Julian called the movie theater to verify that the movie started at nine.

朱利安打电话到电影院核实电影是否九点开始。

vigorous adj.

有力的

If something or someone is vigorous, they use a lot of energy.

指用大量精力的。

→ Henry uses vigorous exercise to keep himself in shape.

亨利通过剧烈运动来保持体形。

Amazing Komodo Dragons

神奇的科莫多龙

Once, a British gazette had an unusual story. Scientists at a zoo made a discovery about komodo dragons. Komodo dragons are giant lizards that grow up to two and a half meters long. A female lizard at the zoo had babies. However, it had never been around a male lizard in its entire life. After the scientists publicized their discovery, many people thought it was fictitious.

曾经,《英国公报》刊登过一个不同寻常的故事。动物园的科学家们发现了科莫多龙。科莫多巨蜥是一种巨型蜥蜴,身长可达2.5米。动物园里的一只雌性蜥蜴生了宝宝。然而,它一生中从未接触过雄性蜥蜴。科学家们公布了他们的发现后,许多人认为这是虚构的。

But it was true. It was discovered that female komodo dragons can have babies without the help of their male counterparts. This contradicts what scientists know about how most animals have babies.

但这是真的。人们发现,雌性科莫多巨蜥可以在没有雄性同伴帮助的情况下繁殖后代。这与科学家所知道的大多数动物繁衍后代的理论相矛盾。

In most cases, there are many things that can obstruct this type of reproduction. For example, adult males and females carry different genes needed to make an embryo. If the genes are homogeneous, the babies are weaker and have genetic problems. Over time, the weakened species dies out completely. This makes it necessary for the male to be involved. However, scientists verified that when Komodo babies are born, their genes aren't the exact same genes as their mother. Also, they are devoid of any genetic problems.

在大多数情况下,有许多事情会阻碍这种繁殖。例如,成年雄性和雌性携带不同的基因,而这些基因是制造胚胎所必需的。如果基因是同质的,婴儿就会更弱,有遗传问题。随着时间的推移,被削弱的物种完全灭绝。这就需要雄性的参与。然而,科学家证实,科莫多巨蜥宝宝出生时,他们的基因与母亲的基因并不完全相同。而且,它们没有任何遗传问题。

Scientists theorize that Komodo dragons developed the ability because it helps the species fend off extinction. If a volcano erupts, lava can kill all of the komodo dragons on an island. However, as long as one female eludes death, she can prolong the survival of the species. Luckily, Komodo dragons are vigorous swimmers. So the surviving female can plunge into the ocean and swim to another island. When she comes ashore, she can reproduce by herself. Over time, the genes within the population diverge. Then, the sparse population increases. Once again there is a surplus of lizards on one island. Scientists think that this may be how the lizards took over all of the islands in that area.

科学家们认为,科莫多巨蜥进化出这种能力是因为它能帮助这个物种抵御灭绝。如果火山喷发,熔岩会杀死岛上所有的科莫多龙。然而,只要有一只雌性逃过一劫,她就能延长物种的存活时间。幸运的是,科莫多龙是精力充沛的游泳者。这样幸存的雌鱼就可以跳进海里,游到另一个岛上去。当她上岸时,可以自己繁殖。随着时间的推移,种群内的基因会分化。然后,稀疏种群增加。在一个岛上,蜥蜴的数量再次过剩。科学家们认为这可能是蜥蜴如何占领该地区所有岛屿的原因。

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