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听故事学4000英语词汇163: 天花病的终结

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听英语故事,学记英语单词。4000英语实用词汇,尽在每个故事中。
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4000 Essential English Words 6 Paul Nation

4000英语核心词汇6 保罗·纳森

Unit 13 Word List

第13单元 单词表

certify v.

证明

To certify something means to confirm that its results are true.

意为确认某事的结果是真实的。

→ The photograph on her passport certified that she was indeed Jolene Sawyer.

她护照上的照片证明她确实是乔琳娜·索耶。

collaborate v.

合作

To collaborate means to work together on something.

指一起做某事。

→ When they collaborated, they managed to finish their chores early.

他们合作一起想办法提前完成了任务。

compile v.

编译

To compile things means to collect a variety of them into a group.

意味着把各种各样的东西收集到一个组中。

→ She compiled a list of people who she wanted to attend her birthday party.

她列了一张她想参加她生日聚会的人的名单。

counteract v.

抵消

To counteract something means to act against it in order to reduce or stop it.

意思是为了减少或阻止某事而采取行动。

→ Medicine is supposed to counteract illnesses.

药物被认为是用来对抗疾病的。

curb v.

控制

To curb something means to prevent it from happening or increasing.

阻止某事发生或增加。

→ She curbed her anger by listening to a relaxing song.

她听了一首轻松的歌曲来抑制自己的怒气。

diagnose v.

诊断

To diagnose someone means to identify the medical condition they have.

意味着确定某人的医疗状况。

→ Several of the children were diagnosed with the flu.

几个孩子被诊断出患了流感。

enact v.

颁布

To enact something means to make it into a law.

指写入法律。

→ The council enacted a law that would only allow buses to drive downtown.

市议会颁布了一项法律,只允许公共汽车开到市区。

federation n.

联邦

A federation is a group of states or businesses working for a common cause.

一群为了共同的事业而工作的州或企业。

→ The United Nations is a federation designed to prevent war, disease, and famine.

联合国是一个旨在防止战争、疾病和饥荒的联盟。

gross adj.

总共的

If something is gross, then it is disgusting.

令人作呕的。

→ The food was so gross that the dog couldn't eat it without feeling sick.

食物太恶心了,狗吃了一定会恶心的。

humane adj.

仁慈的

If something is humane, then it is good and kind.

善良的。

→ Helping build homes for poor people is very humane.

帮助穷人建房子是非常人道的。

intolerable adj.

无法忍受的

If something is intolerable, then it is so bad that people cannot bear it.

糟糕到让人无法忍受的。

→ The weather was so intolerable that I had to put on my warmest clothes.

天气太冷了,我不得不穿上最暖和的衣服。

needy adj.

贫困的

If someone is needy, they are very poor.

非常贫穷的。

→ After he lost his job, he became very needy.

他失业后变得非常贫困。

onset n.

开始

The onset of something unpleasant is the beginning of it.

指某件不开心事情的开始。

→ At the onset of the battle, the enemy wasn't prepared for such a large attack.

战斗一开始,敌人对如此大规模的进攻没有准备。

pledge v.

保证

To pledge means to make a promise to do something.

意思是承诺做某事。

→ Her mother pledged that she would find her daughter's lost kitten.

她母亲保证一定会找到她女儿丢失的小猫。

prohibit v.

禁止

To prohibit something means to not allow it.

意为不允许。

→ She prohibited the students from speaking until their work was done.

她禁止学生在作业做完之前发言。

rash n.

皮疹

A rash is an infected area of the skin with redness, bumps, itching, or dryness.

指感染部位的皮肤发红、肿块、瘙痒或干燥。

→ The new perfume left a horrible rash on my skin.

这种新香水在我的皮肤上留下了可怕的皮疹。

render v.

致使

To render something means to make it become something else.

使变成另一种东西。

→ His report was rendered unimportant by the release of new information.

由于新消息的公布,他的报告变得无关紧要了。

smallpox n.

天花

Smallpox is a disease that causes tiny bumps on the skin and high fevers.

一种会在皮肤上引起小肿块和高烧的疾病。

→ When she saw the tiny bumps, she thought her son might have smallpox.

她看到这些小疙瘩时就认为她的儿子可能得了天花。

transmit v.

传输

To transmit something means to pass it from one person or place to another.

把某物从一个人或地方传给另一个人。

→ The radio tower transmits a signal to all the radios in a 20-kilometer radius.

无线电发射塔向方圆20公里内的所有电台发送信号。

vow v.

发誓

To vow means to make a promise to do something.

意思是承诺做某事。

→ Before they are allowed to work, all senators must vow to never accept bribes.

所有的参议员履职之前都必须发誓绝不接受贿赂。

The End of Smallpox

天花病的终结

Smallpox was once the most deadly disease in the world. During the 1800s, more than 20 million people got the disease every year. Of those, nearly half died. At the onset of smallpox, people suffered from high fevers, headaches, vomiting, and aching muscles. Yet the worst symptom of all was an intolerable rash that caused irritation on the entire body. Those who survived the disease were often rendered blind or left with gross scars on their face and body.

天花曾经是世界上最致命的疾病。在19世纪,每年有超过2000万人感染这种疾病,其中近一半患者死亡。天花爆发时,人们会出现高烧、头痛、呕吐和肌肉酸痛。然而最糟糕的症状是全身出现令人无法忍受的皮疹,引起全身不适。那些在疾病中幸存下来的人往往会失明,或者在脸上和身体上留下巨大的伤疤。

Today, however, cases of smallpox are very rare due to the work of many countries during the late 1900s. This federation of countries collaborated to completely destroy smallpox. Early in the century, wealthy countries in Europe and North America had developed a substance that made the body immune to smallpox. They had required all their citizens to get this vaccine to counteract the disease. Hence, the people of these countries no longer had to worry about smallpox.

然而,如今由于20世纪后期许多国家的努力,天花病例已非常罕见。这个国家联盟合作彻底消灭了天花。本世纪初,欧洲和北美的富裕国家研制出一种使人体对天花免疫的物质。他们要求所有公民接种这种疫苗来对抗这种疾病。因此,这些国家的人们不再担心天花。

However, many of the needy people in poorer parts of the world still suffered from the disease. Their countries could not afford the vaccine nor supply enough doctors to curb the spread of smallpox.

然而,世界上较贫穷地区的许多贫困人口仍然患有这种疾病。他们的国家负担不起疫苗,也没有足够的医生来控制天花的传播。

In 1950, the wealthier countries of the world vowed to free the world of the disease. They pledged to supply the vaccine to any country that could not afford it. Scientists compiled lists of areas where the disease still thrived. Then doctors diagnosed people who had the disease in these areas. They enacted laws that prohibited people with smallpox from mixing with those who did not. In this way, they could not transmit the disease to others. Then the doctors gave all of them the vaccine.

1950年,世界上较富裕的国家发誓要让世界摆脱这种疾病。他们承诺向任何负担不起疫苗的国家提供疫苗。科学家们编制了该疾病仍然猖獗的地区名单,然后医生对这些地区的患者进行诊断。他们颁布了法律,禁止天花患者与正常人交往。这样,他们就不会把疾病传染给别人。然后医生给他们所有人注射疫苗。

It took a long time and a lot of work. But nearly thirty years later, on December 9, 1979, a group of scientists certified that smallpox had been successfully stopped. The humane efforts of people from all over the world had accomplished a great task.

这花了很长时间和很多工作。但近30年后的1979年12月9日,一群科学家证明天花已经被成功阻止。全世界人民的人道努力完成了一项伟大的任务。

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