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听故事学4000英语词汇169: 癫痫病的从前与现在

kira86 于2020-05-25发布
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听英语故事,学记英语单词。4000英语实用词汇,尽在每个故事中。
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4000 Essential English Words 6 Paul Nation

4000英语核心词汇6 保罗·纳森

Unit 19 Word List

第19单元 单词表

airway n.

导气管

An airway is the passage by which air reaches a person's lungs.

空气到达人肺部的通道。

→ Since he was sick, mucus would occasionally get stuck in his airway.

由于他生病了,所以粘液偶尔会卡在他的气道里。

Almighty n.

全能的神

The Almighty is a name for a god in a religion.

在宗教中,全能是上帝的名字。

→ Before eating, they thanked the Almighty for their food.

吃之前,他们感谢上帝赐予他们食物。

advent n.

到来

An advent is the arrival or beginning of an important person, thing, or event.

一个重要的人、事或事件的到来或开始。

→ During the advent of radio, very few programs actually played music.

在收音机刚出现的年代,很少有节目真正播放音乐。

constellation n.

星座

A constellation is a group of stars with a recognizable shape.

一组具有可识别形状的恒星。

→ That constellation in the shape of a square is named after a flying horse.

那个正方形的星座是以一匹飞马的名字命名的。

definitive adj.

最后的

If something is definitive, then it is the most official.

最正式的。

→ This library has the definitive collection of books on ancient Egypt.

这个图书馆有关于古埃及的权威藏书。

equate v.

使相等

To equate one thing with another is to compare them and consider them very similar.

将两者进行比较并认为它们非常相似。

→ She equated the man's messy appearance with a lack of responsibility.

她把那个男人邋遢的外表看作是缺乏责任感。

inhale v.

吸入

To inhale means to take air or a smell into the lungs.

指把空气或气味吸入肺部。

→ The camper inhaled the cool and fresh mountain air and felt relaxed.

露营者呼吸着清凉的山间空气,感到很放松。

invoke

调用

To invoke something is to mention it to support an argument or ask for help.

意为提及某事以支持某个论点或寻求帮助。

→ Before going into battle, the soldier invoked the name of his god for protection.

在投入战斗之前,士兵祈求上帝保佑。

lunar adj.

月亮的

If something is lunar, then it is related to the moon.

与月球有关的。

→ During a lunar eclipse, Earth's shadow darkens the moon's surface.

月食期间,地球的阴影使月球表面变暗。

novelty n.

新奇

A novelty is something that is new, original, or strange.

指新的、原创的或奇怪的东西。

→ Ice cream was a novelty for him since he rarely had any.

冰淇淋对他来说是个新奇的东西,因为他很少吃。

outmoded adj.

过时的

If something is outmoded, then it is no longer in fashion or use.

不再流行或被使用的。

→ Black and white television sets are outmoded.

黑白电视机已经过时了。

personalize v.

使个性化

To personalize something means to design it to meet a person's unique needs.

意味着设计某物来满足一个人的独特需求。

→ He personalized the woman's exercises to give her a better workout.

他为那位妇女量身定做了锻炼方法,使她得到更好的锻炼。

pertain v.

适合

To pertain to something means to be related or connected to it.

意思是与某物相关或连接。

→ All of the lawyer's questions pertained to events around the night of the crime.

律师的所有问题都与犯罪当晚发生的事件有关。

primal adj.

原始的

If something is primal, then it is very basic or related to the origin of something.

非常基本的或与某物的起源有关的。

→ Cooking the food over the camp fire felt like a primal way of making a meal.

在篝火上做饭感觉就像一种原始的做饭方式。

psychiatric adj.

精神病学的

If something is psychiatric, then it is related to mental illness or its treatment.

与精神疾病或其治疗有关的。

→ The doctor said the patient might have a psychiatric problem.

医生说病人可能有精神问题。

psychiatry n.

精神病学

Psychiatry is the study and treatment of mental illness.

研究和治疗精神疾病的学科。

→ Studying psychiatry has taught me a lot about mental illness.

学习精神病学教会了我很多关于精神疾病的知识。

reflex n.

反映物

A reflex is an unconscious action in which a body part responds to an event.

一种无意识的行为,其中身体的一部分对事件作出反应。

→ There was a reflex when the doctor hit his knee with a rubber hammer.

当医生用橡皮锤敲打他的膝盖时,他产生了反射。

seizure n.

没收

A seizure is sudden illness in which the body loses control and shakes.

身体失去控制和颤抖的突然发生的疾病。

→ Bright flashing lights can cause seizures in children.

明亮的闪光灯会导致儿童癫痫。

session n.

会议

A session is a meeting at a regular time in order to discuss and solve an issue.

为了讨论和解决问题而在固定时间召开的会议。

→ Every three months the managers met in a session to discuss regional sales.

经理们每三个月开一次会,讨论区域销售情况。

utensil n.

用具

A utensil is a common tool or container.

一种常用的工具或容器。

→ It seemed that a fork was the wrong utensil for trying to eat the soup.

叉子似乎不适合用于喝汤。

Seizures Then and Now

以前与当今的癫痫病

If a person who lived 200 years ago was treated for a seizure today, they would be surprised by the treatment's novelty. That's because doctors in the 1800s were influenced more by primal medical beliefs than science.

如果一个生活在200年前的人今天接受癫痫治疗,他们会对这种新奇的治疗方法感到惊讶。这是因为19世纪的医生更多地受到原始医学信仰的影响,而不是科学。

Rather than thinking the brain caused seizures, people in the 1800s

19世纪的人们并不认为是大脑引起了癫痫,他们仍然认为这是奇怪力量的结果。他们把癫痫等同于邪灵的工作。另一些人认为癫痫是由宇宙或月球引起的。他们认为月亮和星座的周期会使人发病。

During a session to treat a patient who had seizures, doctors would force the patient to invoke the grace of the Almighty. They thought if the patient did this, then the patient would rid themselves of the evil spirits causing the seizures.

在治疗癫痫病人的过程中,医生会强迫病人祈求上帝的恩典。他们认为如果病人这样做,那么病人就能摆脱引起癫痫发作的邪灵。

The advent of modern psychiatry occurred during the 1800s. At that time people who suffered from seizures were placed in psychiatric hospitals. They were treated like they were insane. However, none of the outmoded treatments worked.

现代精神病学出现于19世纪。那时,癫痫发作的人被送进精神病院,他们被当作疯子对待。然而,这些过时的治疗方法无一奏效。

It wasn't until the late 1850s that the causes of seizures were understood. We know today that these causes pertain to the brain. Misfired signals from the brain cause a jerking reflex in the body. These usually occur when someone is very tired.

直到19世纪50年代末,人们才了解癫痫发作的原因。如今我们都知道这些原因与大脑有关,来自大脑的错误信号会引起身体的抽搐反射。这通常发生在一个人很劳累的时候。

Once the causes of seizures were known, definitive treatments were developed. Today, treatments range from taking pills to having surgery. Treatment is personalized according to the type of seizure the patient has.

一旦了解了癫痫发作的原因,就能找到具体的的治疗方法。今天的治疗方法包括吃药和动手术两种,需根据病人发作的类型进行个性化治疗。

Even today, some people are unsure about seizures. Their most common mistake is thinking that a person having a seizure will swallow their tongue. They often shove some utensil in the person's mouth. However, this doesn't help. The utensil often blocks the airway and prevents the person from inhaling. Yet most of the public no longer fear people who have seizures. Instead, they can now help and comfort a person if they have a seizure.

即使在今天,有些人仍然对癫痫发作不确定。他们最常犯的错误是认为癫痫发作的人会吞下舌头,因此他们经常把一些器具塞进人的嘴里。然而,这并没有帮助。器具常常会阻塞气道,使人无法吸入。然而,大多数公众不再害怕癫痫患者。相反,他们发现癫痫病人之后还可以提供帮助和安慰。

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