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BBC六分钟词汇: 词群 按主题和分类记单词的方法

kira86 于2020-07-21发布
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本期BBC六分钟个词汇要学习的是词群,词群通过将单词按主题或类型分类帮助我们学习词汇,一学就能学习一个list。
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

Lexical sets

词群/词汇集

Catherine: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Vocabulary. I'm Catherine...

大家好,欢迎来到6分钟单词。我是Catherine……

Finn: And I'm Finn, hello.

是我Finn,大家好。

Catherine: Today's programme is all about lexical sets.

今天我们要学的是词群。

Finn: That's right: lexical sets help us to learn words by grouping them together by topic or word type. So, more on that later, but first, here's Dave. He's talking about a flood that happened in his home town recently, and here's a question to answer while you listen: what happened to all of Dave's possessions?

没错:词群通过将单词按主题或类型分类帮助我们学习词汇。我们稍后详细讲解,但我们要先来听听Dave讲述他家乡最近遭受的洪灾。边听边思考一个问题:Dave的所有财产怎么样了?

Dave: Well, we had so much rain: it said on the news we got a month's rainfall in just one day! The water level rose so high that the river burst its banks and water poured into everyone's houses. It's terrible - my house was flooded, all my things were completely soaked and the carpets are still waterlogged.

嗯,我们这里下了很大的雨:新闻上说一天的降雨量相当于一个月的!水位涨得很高,河水冲破了堤岸,水涌进了每个人的房子。这太可怕了——我的房子被水淹了,我所有的东西都湿透了,地毯上还浸透了水。

Catherine: Oh, dear. Dave.

噢,亲爱的Dave.

Finn: Yes. We asked you what happened to Dave's possessions...

我们问的是Dave的财产怎么样了?

Catherine: And he said all his things were completely soaked - they were covered in water and now they're all wet and damaged.

据他所说,他所有的东西都完全被淹了——都泡在水里,现在都湿透并损坏了。

Finn: Dave also used a few different words to talk about the flood and its effects. He talked about the rain and rainfall - that's a way to describe the water that falls as rain over a period of time...

Dave还用寥寥几语谈了洪水及其影响。他谈到了雨水和降雨量——这是描述一段时间内下雨量的一种方式。

Catherine: And he talked about water level, that's the height of the water in rivers and lakes. And Dave said it got very high.

他还谈到了水位,也就是河流和湖泊的水位高度。Dave说水位涨得很高。

Finn: It did. And that's what caused the floods. Now, floods, water level, water, rainfall and rain - these are all on the topic of rain and floods.

确实是,正因如此才造成洪灾的。那么,floods(洪水)water level(水位),water(水),rainfall(降雨量)和rain(雨)这些词都和下雨及洪水主题相关。

Catherine: And they're also all the same type of word - they're all nouns. So we can group these words into a lexical set.

他们也都是同类型的单词——都是名词。所以我们可以将这些词归类为一个词群。

Finn: That's right: a lexical set is a group of words which are all about the same topic, and which all belong to the same part of speech - they're all nouns or verbs or adjectives.

没错:词群是一组关于同一主题的词,它们都属于同一词类——它们都是名词、动词或形容词。

Catherine: So, to make a lexical set for activities on a beach holiday, for example, you might think of...

因此,要创建一个海滩假日活动相关的词群,您可能会想到……

Finn: ...swimming, sunbathing, and surfing. What do you like doing on a beach holiday, Catherine?

……游泳,日光浴和冲浪。你假期去海滩喜欢做什么呢,Catherine?

Catherine: Me - I like sunbathing and eating ice cream. And swimming, sunbathing, eating ice cream, and surfing are all gerunds, that's nouns made from -ing verbs.

我——我喜欢日光浴和吃冰激凌。Swimming(游泳),sunbathing(日光浴),eating ice cream(吃冰激凌)和surfing(冲浪)这几个词都是动名词,也就是由动词ing形式构成的名词。

Finn: Exactly, so: same topic, same word type: that's a lexical set! Lots of people find it useful to learn words in groups like this. They seem to stick in your mind more easily.

没错,所以:同样的主体,相同的词性:这就是词群!很多人觉得这样分组学习单词很有用,更有助于记忆。

Catherine: That's right and by learning words in lexical sets, you'll also have more words to choose from when you're talking about a topic. Let's hear Dave again and see if you can spot another lexical set:

没错。而且用词群学习单词能在谈论一个话题时有更多的词汇选择。我们再来听听Dave说的话,看看能不能再找出另外的词群。

CLIP FROM INSERT: ...my house was flooded, all my things were completely soaked and the carpets are still waterlogged.

…我的房子被水淹了,我所有的东西都湿透了,地毯上还浸透了水。

Catherine: Did you get it? Dave said his house was flooded - full of water; all his things were soaked - completely wet; and his carpets still have lots of water in them - they are waterlogged.

听出来了吗?Dave说他的房子被水淹了——全是水;他所有的东西都被浸泡在水里——完全湿透了;他的地毯上仍然有很多水——渍水的。

Finn: The words flooded, soaked and waterlogged are all adjectives here, and they're all about flooding, so -

Flooded,soaked和waterlogged在此处都是形容词,并且都与洪水有关,所以——

Catherine: - there's our next lexical set!

——这就是我们下一个词群!

Finn: There it is!

说对了!

You're listening to BBC Learning English.

你正在收听的是BBC英语学习频道。

Catherine: And we're talking about lexical sets: groups of words related to the same topic that come from the same part of speech, like nouns, verbs, adjectives, gerunds.

我们正在讲解的是词群:与同一主题相关的一组词,它们来自同一词性,比如名词、动词、形容词、动名词。

Finn: That's right, and it's time for a quiz.

没错,是时候做个小测验了。

Catherine: Aha! My favourite. Right: I'll say three words and you decide if they make a lexical set or not. Finn will tell you the answers. Ready? Number one. Tea, coffee, water. Lexical set or not?

啊哈!我最喜欢的。好了:我说三个词,然后你决定它们是否构成词群。Finn会公布答案。准备好了吗?第一题:茶、咖啡、水。是词群吗?

Finn: Well, they're all drinks - so the same topic - and they're all nouns, so they're a lexical set.

这些都是饮品——所以属于同一话题——它们也都是名词,所以属于一个词群。

Catherine: They are. Another one: swimming, cleaning, sunbathing.

没错。下一题:游泳,打扫,日光浴。

Finn: And that's not a lexical set. They are all gerunds, but the topic seems to be 'holiday activities' like swimming and sunbathing - and cleaning doesn't really fit with that group. Not on my holidays, anyway...

这不是词群。它们都是动名词,但话题不同,游泳和日光浴属于假期活动——而打扫却不属于这个话题。反正这不在我的假期活动列表中……

Catherine: Not on mine, either. So, well done if you got those right at home. And we've just got time for a quick vocabulary tip. Finn?

也不算是我的假期活动。如果你都做对了,那很棒哦。我们还有时间教一个快速学习单词窍门,Finn?

Finn: OK, right, here we go: find a friend, and play a game of 'lexical set tennis'. It goes like this. You choose a topic, like sport, and then choose a word group like nouns - and then you take it in turns to say words in the set. Alright Catherine: shall we try this?

好的,那我们开始吧:找一个朋友一起玩一个“词汇网球”游戏。玩法如下:你选择一个话题,比如运动,然后选一个单词组,比如名词——然后双方轮流说出同一个词群中的单词。好了,Catherine,我们要不要也试着玩一下这个游戏?

Catherine: Yes, come on then...

没错,那就来吧……

Finn: The topic is sport and I'll start with football.

我们就以运动为话题,我先来,足球。

Catherine: Rugby.

橄榄球。

Finn: Boxing.

拳击。

Catherine: Basketball.

篮球。

Finn: Err. Err. Oh no! There's more about this at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Vocabulary. And I've got another one.

呃呃,噢不!更多内容尽在BBC英语学习网站。下期节目再见。我又想到了一个。

Catherine: Come on then.

那你说出来吧。

Finn: Golf...

高尔夫球……

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